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CITY LIGHTS – Charles Chaplin

February 7, 2022 Leave a comment Go to comments


Original Review by Craig Lysy

Entering the 1920s Charlie Chaplin had become a global sensation, his career ascendent. In 1929 he conceived a new film, “City Lights”, a passion project in which he would produce, direct, write the screenplay, compose the score, and star. Chaplin was a perfectionist and it would take him 534 days of filming to realize his vision. He faced significant resistance from his studio United Artists who were not happy with his decision to eschew a talkie film, and instead stubbornly make another silent film, although one with a synchronous and original score. For Chaplin, his art and passion was pantomime, with his Tramp character beloved by the world and legend. He saw talkie films as a harbinger for the end of his art, and so his reaction was understandable. And so, he proceeded with his vision and a budget of $1.5 million dollars was provided. The cast included Chaplin as the Tramp, Virginia Cherrill as the blind Flower Girl, Florence Lee as the grandmother, Harry Myers as the eccentric millionaire, Al Ernest Garcia as the butler, and Hank Mann as the prizefighter.

The story reveals a street tramp who one day comes across a flower girl, with whom he falls in love. He then has a fateful meeting with a drunken and despondent millionaire whom he saves from a suicide attempt. They become the best of friends and he secures money from him to pay for eye surgery for the flower girl. The plan goes awry when burglars rob the millionaire of the rest of his money and the Tramp is wrongfully accused of the crime as the millionaire has amnesia. Luckily the tramp was able to get the surgery money to the girl before he was arrested. He is convicted in court, does his time, and immediately seeks out the girl upon his release. She does not relate his appearance as a tramp since she believed a wealthy man aided her. Yet after he buys a flower, she places a coin in his hand and realizes from her touching memory, that he is her benefactor. She takes his hand, presses it to her heart and we end with their love finally realized. The film was a sensational commercial success, both in the United States and overseas, earning a profit of $2.75 million. Critical acclaim was universal with many praising Chaplin’s genius and comedic gift. The film today in most quarters it is believed to be one of the finest ever made. No formal awards were bestowed as the film predates the formation of the Academy Awards.

In his youth Chaplin fell in love with music and taught himself to play the violin, cello, piano and organ. However, he never learned to write or read musical script. Later in life as an adult performer he understood that musical accompaniment for his silent pantomime acts was absolutely essential. For “City Lights” he made the audacious decision to personally score the film, his first with synchronized sound. He did could not write down his melodies, but instead sang “La, La, La” to a team of orchestrators and arrangers led by Arthur Johnson, who transcribed the sounds into musical script. Chaplin was a perfectionist with a clear vision of the role he wanted the score to play in the film. He insisted that he did not want the music to be funny, and related: “I wanted no competition; I wanted the music to be a counterpoint of grace and charm… I tried to compose elegant and romantic music to frame my comedies”.

To realize his vision Chaplin hired a 36-member orchestra under the direction of Alfred Newman. For his soundscape Chaplin interpolated a number of contemporaneous songs, including; “Old Folks At Home” and “The Swanee River” by Stephen Foster, “St. Louis Blues” by W. C. Harding, and “How Dry Am I” from “The Drunk Millionaire. Foremost was the use of the dance-like “La Violetera” song melody by José Padilla, whose Habanera rhythms served as a courtship theme for the Tramp and the Flower Girl. Chaplin explained his choice: “Everything I do is a dance. I think in terms of dance. I think more so in City Lights. The blind girl – beautiful dance there. I call it a dance”.

Jazz had also become popular with the masses and he utilizes the idiom several times during the film, including its opening, and the pugilist scene. In terms of original themes, he composed six, including two promenades. Promenade 1 offers an animated and rhythmic piece, which supports his unique, and comic gait as he travels down the streets. Promenade 2 offers a valzer promenade, which supports a more elegant, and less comic street travel music. The Tramp Theme speaks to his obvious bumbling and is emoted by a staccato bassoon comico and kindred woodwinds. Dance energy was also infused including a vibrant Fox Trot as well as a trumpet and violin led danza energico empowered by Flamenco auras, chattering castanets and harp glissandi. The Flower Girl’s Theme is emoted tenderly by a solo violin, which speaks of her isolation, loneliness, but also her beauty and kindness. The score’s most profoundly moving and enduring theme is the Love Theme for the Tramp and the Flower Girl, which emotes as a gorgeous romance for orchestra. Its transformation in the film’s final scene to a violin d’amore quartet offers the score’s emotional apogee, and a sublime film and music confluence. Lastly, scenes coded (*) contain music not found on the album.

“Overture” supports the roll of the opening credits, which unfold as white typeset against a gray background. We open with a sassy Gershwinesque clarinet, which ushers in a buoyant danza energico, a festive Flamenco rich with Andalusian auras. At 0:39 we segue into the sumptuous Love Theme borne by strings d’amore as “The Cast” credits display. At 0:57, the bluesy clarinet ushers in a Big Band vibe and brings us into the film proper as “City Lights” displays over a busy New York Street. At 1:16 we segue into “Unveiling the Statue” a hilariously entertaining score highlight! Pretentious faux fanfare reale resound as we see a draped public statute about to be revealed to a crowd with the caption; “To the people of this city, we donate this monument”; ‘Peace and Prosperity!’. At 1:32 racing strings rapido surge over rhythmic pizzicato strings as the mayor gives a commemorative speech. At 2:20 the pretentious fanfare reprises as a female dignitary pulls on the release line. At 2:38 woodwinds sardonica support the revelation of the Tramp asleep on the lap of the seated statue of a woman. As he wakes, a comic Promenade Theme 1 springs to life and carries his surprise, embarrassment, and apology as he attempts to gracefully dismount. Slapstick comedy follows as the statue’s sword impales his trousers, preventing his dismount. An interlude of the Star-Spangled Banner (not on the album) supports his silly attempts to stand reverentially for the anthem. The comedic Promenade Theme 1 resumes to support his inglorious dismount. The confluence of music and Chaplin’s comedic genius are on full display for this iconic scene.

(*) “Afternoon” reveals the Tramp walking the busy streets carried by the grace of Promenade Theme 1. He is harassed by two newspaper boys, yet maintains his dignity and composure. As he approaches a storefront window that displays a bronze statue, we shift to the valzer gentile of Promenade Theme 2, which beautifully juxtaposes the comedy unfolding on the screen as he repeatedly, and miraculously avoids falling down a sidewalk loading bay shaft, which rises and falls. “The Flower Girl” offers a wonderous romantic score highlight. It reveals the first meeting between the blind girl who sells flowers on the street, and the Tramp. He is captivated by her beauty and gentleness and succumbs to her charm, buying a flower with his last coin. Chaplin supports with a full rendering of the La Violetera song melody, which blossoms at 1:38 as she tenderly inserts the flower into his lapel. He is clearly smitten, and feigns departing without taking his change so he may gaze upon her beauty. He only departs when she accidentally tosses water on him, unaware he was in the path.

“Evening” offers another score highlight, which reveals the Flower Girl returning home where she is greeted by her grandmother. As she waters flowerpot on the window sill her neighbor departs on a date with her beau and we see a tinge of sadness, which speaks to the Flower Girl’s loneliness. Chaplin supports the scene tenderly, and with great affection using her theme carried beautifully by a solo violin delicato. At 1:25 we segue atop dire horns into “Meeting the Millionaire” where we see the drunk millionaire stumble into a sidewalk along a river and place a hanging noose around his neck. A sardonic bassoon and kindred woodwinds support the unfolding suicide attempt. At 1:49 a stinger supports the arrival of the Tramp, followed by a comic descent motif as he descends the stairs to join the Millionaire. Woodwinds comica support the Tramp cleaning a bench and nonchalantly sitting down, joined by a brief quote of the Courtship Theme as he smells the flower on his lapel. At 2:10 urgent strings surge with chirping woodwinds comico counters as the Millionaire takes the rock he has attached to the rope and prepares to toss it into the river. The Tramp intervenes and at 2:25 a comic descent supports the rock dropping on the Tramp’s foot, followed by silly woodwinds as he tends to his wounded foot. String surges support the Tramp removing the noose, followed at 2:43 by bright strings of hope as we read; “Tomorrow the birds will sing.” Harsh strings follows as the Tramp shouts; “Be brave! Face life!” At 3:07 urgent string surge as he refuses, reattaches the noose by mistake to the Tramp, and tosses the rock, dragging him under. At 3:19 urgent strings rapido are unleashed and propel the Promenade Theme 1 as we see the tramp drowning while the millionaire sits with no sense of urgency on the bench taking off his expensive shoes. He finally reaches down to pull the Tramp up only to fall in himself! At 3:40 the bumbling Tramp Theme supports the two climbing out to safety, joined by a trumpet comico emoting “The Swanee River” melody. The comedic Tramp Theme continues to support as the millionaire accidentally bumps the Tramp back into the river! Of course, the millionaire is pulled in again for a reprise of the silliness. The bumbling Tramp Theme and “The Swanee River” quote reprise as the millionaire thanks him and says; “I’m cured. You’re my friend for life.” We close at 4:34 with a final rendering of the Tramp Theme as the Millionaire takes the Tramp to his estate to warm up, carried by affectionate strings as the depart.

“At the Millionaire’s Home” reveals the millionaire graciously hosting the Tramp in thanks for his good deeds. They toast to their friendship but as they do, the millionaire pours out the liquor into the Tramp’s pants – twice! Chaplin juxtaposes this comedy with a splendid elegant rendering of Promenade Theme 2’s valzer gentile. At 2:05 the two get progressively drunk, and the waltz mirrors this by becoming increasingly playful. At 3:19 the musical narrative becomes riotous, propelling the scene with manic energy as the millionaire resumes his drama queen routine by pulling out a revolver and declaring he was going to kill himself. The album cue ends here. In the film, comforting strings tenero support the Tramp dissuading the millionaire, followed by a reprise of the manic musical narrative as the millionaire declares they are going out to paint the town!

“The Nightclub – Dance Suite” offers a delightful score highlight, which features a parade of dances. The Millionaire and Tramp’s arrival at the night club is supported by a danza felice abounding with a bouncy playfulness, which offers counterpoint to Chaplin’s comedic slipping and sliding on the dance floor. At 1:07 sweeping valzer eleganza juxtaposes the Tramp repeated failing to light his cigar. When the hostess finally does it for him, he tosses it onto the chair of a woman who sits on it. At 1:59 the musical narrative intensifies and becomes emphatic as her dress catches fire and the Tramp first pats her but to put it out, and then resourcefully uses a pressurized water bottle to dose the flames. The music is sustained as the Tramp comically eats spaghetti. The dance ends after a couple rushes onto the dance floor with the man roughly handling his girl and throwing her to the floor. The Tramp comes to her rescue, the couple departs and then at 2:29 the music becomes vibrant as the band up tempos their music with a Fox Trot and the patrons pour onto the dance floor in a wild free for all. We conclude the scene at 3:33 with a festive polka felice as the Tramp unexpectedly takes to the dance floor with another man’s wife. The polka once again offers counterpoint to the comedic twirling the Tramp performs on the dance floor.

“The Drive Home” (*) reveals the two men departing the nightclub in the morning hours. Chaplin propels their drive with manic strings rapido as we see them driving on sidewalks, on the wrong side of traffic. This mad cap drive home reveals that the only thing that saves the two, is sheer luck and the lack of traffic. Their arrival home reveals the drunk Millionaire gifting his car to the Tramp. A playful and comedic musical narrative supports the Tramp and Butler’s attempts to get the Millionaire safely into the house. They succeed, but the butler bars the Tramp from entering. In (*) “Flowers” the Tramp sits on the porch despondent, but as the Flower Girl walks by, the string borne Habanera of the Courtship Theme joins. Inside the Millionaire demands that his friend be let in and the butler accommodates. The Tramp rushes in carried by an animated rendering of his theme and convinces him to give him money to buy flowers. As he runs to join her, a lush violin d’Amore with harp adornment supports his kind purchase of all her flowers. As they walk back to his car arm in arm, the music blossoms on a valzer romantico. He gives the flowers to the butler and then offers the Flower Girl a ride home, which she accepts.

“The Limousine” supports them boarding the car, with his comedic contortioned entry. Chaplin supports the drive to her house with a solo violin delicato with harp adornment. An extended romance for string unfolds to support their arrival, his kiss of her hand, and her agreement to his request to see her again. After she enters her apartment beaming with pangs of love the smitten Tramp waits on the stairs below. A cat knocks a potted plant off the ledge that falls and shatters on the Tramp’s head. He then climbs atop a rain barrel to peer into her apartment only to be caught by her neighbor. The Tramp’s bumbling theme joins as he is startled, overturns the rain barrel, which floods over the neighbor! Now in a panic, the Tramp’s prancing theme carries his running departure to his car. “The Sober Dawn” reveals the Millionaire asleep on the sofa holding the bouquet of flowers the Tramp purchased. We open with four clock chimes, which ushers in an idyllic musical narrative as the servants open the parlor drapes to let the day in. At 0:23 chimes and woodwinds comico usher in, and join with strings energico, as the Tramp arrives, gets out of the car, and rings the estate’s doorbell. The Millionaire does not want to see anyone and so the butler rebuffs the Tramp’s persistent attempts to get in. At 1:11 the musical narrative descends into slap stick silliness as the Tramp manages to get in, only to be unceremoniously tossed out. At 1:27 soft strings support the Tramp hatching an idea after two men who are smoking walk past him. At 1:44 bubbling woodwinds animato surge as he gets into the car follows one of the men, and then grabs the cigar butt he tossed off the pavement, knocking another man down to get it. At 2:02 the strolling Promenade Theme 1 carries his return to the estate. The Millionaire exits, does not greet the Tramp, gets into the car, and drives away – forgetting that gifted the car to the Tramp while drunk. The Tramp is incredulous and we conclude with sad resignation as he walks away.

“A Happy Day” (*) reveals the Flower Girl relating her happiness to her grandmother regarding the nice gentlemen who has taken interest in her, which Chaplin supports with a tender romance for strings. “That Afternoon” (*) reveals the Tramp’s walk carried by the casual happiness of Promenade Theme 1. In town the Millionaire, who has had a few drinks, exits to meet him. He says “My friend”, hugs and kisses him, and invites him home for a swell party. As they get in and the Tramp drives, the promenade assumes a jazzy iteration. “The Party and the Morning After” offers a wonderful comedic score highlight with inspired conception. It reveals a crowded festive party with people dancing at the Millionaire’s home, which Chaplin infuses with bubbly woodwinds and vibrant Flamenco dance energy. At 1:12 a diminuendo supports comedic accents related to the Tramp accidentally swallowing a whistle, which becomes lodged. Inane comedy unfolds as every effort to speak elicits a whistle sound, which distracts from the vocalist trying to sing an opera aria. At 1:40 a sad string musical narrative carries the Tramp’s departure. A molto tragico iteration of the Promenade Theme 1 with comedic accents joins while outside. At 2:07 we surge with energetic comedic flare as his whistle, first hails a taxi, which he declines, and then attracts dogs, which swarm him! The music propels his return to the party with the dogs swarming the guests! The musical energy dissipates as we see the Tramp asleep in the master bedroom.

“Eviction” offers a gorgeous score highlight with some of the score’s most romantic writing for strings. The Tramp awakes to an idyllic string serenade, which blossoms romantically atop a solo violin d’Amore and kindred strings. He gets out of bed and enters the bathroom as we see the Millionaire asleep on the other side of the bed. At 1:42 playful, dancing woodwinds comico bubble as the sober Millionaire wakes up to see the Tramp return to bed and then pat him affectionately. At 2:49 energetic strings rapido surge as the Millionaire orders the butler to remove him and mad cap comedy ensues. At 3:17 a valzer maestoso emotes Promenade Theme 2, which supports the Millionaire’s preparations to depart for his ocean liner voyage to Europe, as well as the Tramp’s departure from the estate. At 4:44 we segue seamless into “The Road Sweeper” as we see the Tramp shuffling along the street and eventually arriving at the Flower Girl’s house. We segue into “At the Girl’s Home” at 5:00 atop plucky and playful pizzicato accents, which support the Tramp’s climb to peer into the house from atop the rain barrel. At 6:16 lush strings usher in a Pathétique by solo violin triste as he sees a doctor examining the Flower Girl who is sick with a fever. He is sad, and sits down forlorn on the steps hoping she recovers.

In “Finding Work” (*) the Tramp is determined to help his girl and gets a job. An extended rendering of his bumbling theme carries his walk with a cart down the street, and his shoveling of horse manure droppings. Comedy ensues as countless horses keep passing by and even an elephant! “Final Notice” (*) reveals an eviction letter to the Flower Girl and grandmother for back rent due by tomorrow. A pathos of grieving strings supports the grandmother’s distress and her departure as she keeps the eviction notice a secret and seeks a remedy. “Lunch Notice” (*) reveals the Tramp returning to city sanitation complex carried by his bassoon led bumbling theme. Playful strings join as he washes his hands in preparation for lunch. He accidently grabs his coworker’s cheese thinking it soap, tosses it away when it will not lather, finds the real soap, and then returns the soap to the coworker’s bread. One bite of the sandwich throws the coworker into a tizzy as he spouts bubbles, and racing strings comico support his anger, as well as the propelling the Tramp’s departure. Woodwinds sardonico punctuate his boss’ order to be back on time.

“The Tramp Visits” (*) reveals him visiting the Flower Girl at home. He has brought her food and also a newspaper article, which says a Vienna doctor can cure blindness, which makes her happy. Chaplin supports them tenderly with a valzer romantico, which gains happiness with his good news. Comedic pizzicato strings enter as he agrees to help her knit, but instead of spooling the yarn, she spools a string from his vest. The music is sustained in a scene change, which reveals the grandmother on the street trying to no avail, to sell flowers. A return to the house shows a massive string ball as she continues to unwind the Tramp’s clothes! He gets up, turns on the phonograph, grabs a book to read to her, and discovers the eviction notice. Grieving strings tristi support him reading it at her request, following by her crying. The strings warm with love as he promises to pay the bill in the morning, kissing her hand as he departs. “Late” (*) reveals the Tramp racing back to work as he is late, propelled by desperate strings rapido. Harsh string slashes support his interception by his boss and firing. A sad Promenade Theme 2 carries his departure past a boxing hall entrance, with horns sardonico supporting his recruitment by a promoter with an offer of easy money.

“The Boxing Match” offers an entertaining score highlight, but the album version is significantly edited and truncated from the film version. It opens forcefully with staccato horns dramatico as we see boxers fighting in the ring. As we transition to the boxer’s prep room the melody shifts to a The Flamenco Dance Theme as we see the hapless Tramp with his boxing gloves on backwards. He reminds the guy who recruited him, and whom he will fight, that they will split the winnings. At 1:46 a piercing trumpet supports the Tramp’s silly animated show of his boxing prowess. At 2:09 a much stronger man fills in for the Tramp’s partner, who had to flee after news the police were after him. A playful and plodding Tramp Theme supports his lame efforts to ingratiate himself with his burly opponent. (The following musical passage is not on the album) The Flamenco dance rhythm returns as the two new fighters are led out to the ring. An overtly effeminate Tramp begins flirting, much to his opponent’s consternation. A piercing trumpet of reckoning blares as the fighters are brought back, joined by the Tramp’s bumbling theme as he prepares for his fight. A dramatic rendering of the Flamenco Dance Theme supports the Tramp and his opponent who are taken to the ring. At 2:42 the film and album resync as the fight begins. Chaplin uses a scherzando of a rapid and shifting violin tremolo and chirping woodwinds animato to propel the fight. The Tramp keeps hiding behind the referee and time and time again darts out to land a punch. At 3:43 a trumpet declares the end of the round, and the music shifts to a romantic passage as the Tramp imagines the Flower Girl attending to him. A new round commences with a trumpet call and a reprise of the quirky scherzando (not on the album) until 4:33 when film and album resync with a trumpet call and sad strings as the Tramp is knocked out and loses.

In “Aftermath” (*) strings tristi carry the victorious opponent exit as personnel carry the stuporous Tramp back to the prep room. We close with a sardonic trumpet as the Tramp wakes up, only to be knocked out again as a boxing glove falls and strikes his head. Later, a dispirited Tramp wanders the city streets in hope of finding some money. The strolling Promenade Theme 1 carries his progress. “Back From Europe” (*) reveals the Millionaire has returned from Europe, and as he drunkenly exits the theater, he bumps into the Tramp. A danza spiritoso supports the happy reunion as he hugs and kisses the Tramp. In “The Burglars” the danza spiritoso carries their departure for home in his limousine. At 0:33 we shift to the estate where burglars have entered. Foreboding drums and horns of doom sound as the butler turns on the light and greets the Millionaire and Tramp at the door, as the two burglars hide behind the curtains. (Music for the following passage is not on the album). The valzer gentile of the Promenade Theme 2 supports as the Millionaire pours them drinks, they toast, and he promises to take care of the girl. He gifts him $1,000 and an elated Tramp kisses him. The lurking, ominous drums of the Burglar Motif resumes as they sneak up and knock out the Millionaire. A flight scherzando ensues as the burglars frantically chase the Tramp. As he calls the police the burglars steal the Millionaire’s wallet and escape. The Tramp pursues only to be apprehended by a policeman. The film and album resync at 1:10, and a stepped string descent supports the Tramp’s arrest. A tragic-comic joining of the Tramp Theme supports his predicament as the Millionaire has amnesia and cannot affirm, he gave the Tramp the money. At 2:29 a now desperate Tramp grabs the money from the policeman and flees propelled by the flight scherzando. In a mad cap sequence, the Tramp outwits and escapes the police.

“Reunited” offers the score’s supreme highlight, where it achieves its emotional apogee. The Tramp reaches the Flower Girl’s house and gifts her money for the rent, and her eye operation. She kisses his hand and asks how she can ever repay him as he departs, promising to return soon. Chaplin supports with a beautiful rendering of the Love Theme as a sumptuous romance for strings, which is joined at 1:15 by a warm and very moving iteration of the Habanera of the Courtship Theme. At 3:10 a free-flowing joining of both Promenade Themes carries his departure. Trumpets of doom sound (not on the album) as detectives arrest the Tramp on the street and we later see him sent to prison. At 4:07 a buoyant rendering of the Habanera supports the Flower Girl, who has regained her sight, decorating a vase in the flower shop, while on the street, a forlorn Tramp in tattered cloths wanders aimlessly. As he window shops, the Promenade Theme 1 (not on the album) carries his progress. At 4:41 he turns, sees the Flower Girl, and becomes transfixed as a violin romantico emotes the Love Theme. She offers him a flower, yet he cannot pay, and so starts to walk away. She pursues, gifts him a flower and then places a coin in his hand. We now bear witness to a sublime cinematic confluence as we see in her eyes, touch memory recognition of his hand. She pauses and says; “You?” as the Love theme blossoms on a quartet of violins d”Amore as tears come to our eyes. He says; “You can see now?” and she answers; “Yes, I can see now.” We close the film with them holding each other’s hands, and their eyes overflowing with love, as we climax on a heart-warming crescendo romantico.

I would like to thank Nic Raine and Carl Davis for this long-sought restoration and re-recording of Charlie Chaplin’s masterpiece, “City Lights”. The audio quality of the 2012 pressing is excellent, and the performance of the City of Lights Orchestra under the baton of Carl Davis, superb. Charlie Chaplin was a genius and peerless in his pantomime. He masterfully conceived juxtaposing his comedic performance with a musical score, which was elegant and romantic. This purposeful counterpoint provided the perfect backdrop to his performance and gave the film both heart and poignancy. His two elegant Promenade Themes juxtaposed his unique and silly shuffling gait with upturned over-sized shoes. His bumbling personal theme served to ender us to him, while the many dance passages provided the necessary vibrancy and energy to sustain the film’s narrative flow. However, it is the Courtship and Love Themes, which raise the film’s musical eloquence to the sublime. Indeed, in the final heart-warming scene the expression of the Love Theme by a violin d’Amore quartet offers one of the finest romantic confluences in cinematic history. Folks, this score is a masterpiece of the Silent Film Age, and a testament to Chaplin’s genius and musical intuition. I highly recommend the purchase of this quality album for your collection.

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to the film’s sublime finale: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1AXm8rL4_y8

Buy the City Lights soundtrack from the Movie Music UK Store

Track Listing:

  • Overture/Unveiling the Statue (04:14)
  • The Flower Girl (La Violetera) (composed by José Padilla) (03:03)
  • Evening/Meeting the Millionaire (05:42)
  • At the Millionaire’s Home (03:55)
  • The Nightclub – Dance Suite (05:08)
  • The Limousine (02:24)
  • The Sober Dawn (03:02)
  • The Party and the Morning After (02:37)
  • Eviction/The Road Sweeper/At the Girl’s Home (07:43)
  • The Boxing Match (04:49)
  • The Burglars (03:12)
  • Reunited (07:33)

Running Time: 52 minutes 22 seconds

Silva Screen FILMCD-078 (1931/1991)
Carl Davis Collection CDC015 (1931/2012)

Music composed by Charlie Chaplin. Conducted by Carl Davis. Performed by the City Lights Orchestra. Original orchestrations by Arthur Johnston. Recorded and mixed by Dick Lewzey and Steven Shin. Score produced by Charlie Chaplin. Album produced by Carl Davis and Nic Raine.

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