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DIE NIBELUNGEN, PART I: SIEGFRIED – Gottfried Huppertz

GREATEST SCORES OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

Original Review by Craig Lysy

Austrian director and screenwriter Fritz Lang had long desired to bring a grand fantasy adventure film to the big screen. He eventually found inspiration in the epic 12th century Germanic poem Die Nibelungenlied. He collaborated with his wife Thea von Harbou in writing the screenplays for a two-part series that would be titled Die Nibelungen: Siegfried and Die Nibelungen: Kriemhild’s Revenge. The German production company Decla-Bioscop agreed to produce and fund the film, with UFA overseeing distribution. For Lang this was a passion project, and he assembled one of the finest casts ever assembled, which included; Paul Richter as King Siegfried of Xanten, Margarete Schon as Kriemhild of Burgund, Hanna Ralph as Queen Brunhild of Isenland, Bernhard Goetzke as Volker of Alzey, Theodor Loos as King Gunther of Burgund, Rudolf Klein-Rogge as King Etzel, Rudolf Rittner as Margave Rüdiger of Bechlam, Hans Adalbert Schelettow as Hagen of Tronje, Georg August Koch as Hildebtandt, Georg John as Mime the Goldsmith/Albert the Dwarf/Blaodel, Getrud Arnold as Queen Ute of Burgund, Hans Carl Müller as Gerenot of Burgund, Erwin Biswanger as Giselher of Burgund, Fritz Alberti as Dietrich of Bern, and Annie Röttegen as Dietlind of Bechlam.

The first film explores the reign and exploits of the legendary King Siegfried of Xanten who forges a great sword and sets out with the goal of conquest and winning the hand of the beautiful Kriemhild, Princess of Burgundy. He is ultimately undone by Brunhild’s lies, and killed by King Gunther and Lord Hagen’s treachery. In the second film Kriemhild seeks to avenge herself against Hagen. She accomplishes this goal, but with a terrible cost, which brings ruin to all, including herself who is cut down by sword master Hildebrandt using Siegfried’s own sword. The films were both a commercial success and critical success, universally praised as an epic masterpiece of German cinema.

Director Fritz Lang enjoyed his first collaboration with composer Gottfried Huppertz on Vier Um Die Frau (1921) and called upon him to score the two films. Hippertz was reluctant, fearful of the inevitable comparisons that would be made with Richard Wagner’s masterpiece Der Ring des Nibelungen (1876). Lang previewed the film with him and Huppertz was convinced that the music would be written to support a film, not the concert hall and would therefore be independent from and not competing with the iconic opera. Huppertz understood that this was an epic tale with a massive tapestry on which to compose. He would have to speak to the heroism of Siegfried, his love of Kriemhild, and the conspiracy of Queen Brunhild, King Gunther and Lord Hagen, which bring about his death.

Huppertz chose to provide his soundscape with a multiplicity of themes attached to characters, beasts, items and emotional drivers, both overt and covert. Foremost is the Nibelungen Theme, an over-arching main theme which offers a powerful exposition by strings solenne that provides drama and gravitas to the film’s narrative. It offers three repeating five-note phrases, each building upon the other with both strength and power. In a masterstroke of conception Huppertz informs us that this is no mere story, but an epic tale. Siegfried’s Theme supports our hero who slays dragons, defeats villains, and makes women swoon. His theme offers a bold major modal construct empowered with horns brilliante and confident strings, which abound in optimism. Kriemhild’s Theme supports her identity, but also serves as The Love Theme for her and Siegfried. It is carried by solo oboe delicato and kindred woodwinds, and then expanded by sumptuous strings romantico upon which it blossoms with sublime aching beauty. The Parting Theme offers a repeating twelve-note statement full of heartache, shifted among solo woodwinds, which speaks to what will be the fated loss of Kriemhild’s beloved Siegfried for which she is tragically complicit. The Garden Theme offers a beautiful, idyllic pastorale by woodwinds, which speak to the verdant refuge for lovers.

For legendary challenges Siegfried overcomes, we have the Dragon Theme, which supports the fire-breathing beast. It offers a dark, threatening, and repeating six-note construct by horns and woodwinds sinistre joined with tremolo violins, supplemented by abyssal bass and guttural tuba, which speak to the beast’s enormity. Alberich’s Theme supports his identity as the sinister and duplicitous dwarf ruler of the elves and guardian of the Nibelung treasure. Repeating seven-note phrasing by celli misterioso over tremolo violins sow a lurking menace. The Cave Theme supports the hidden cave in which Alberich has buried the treasure of the Nibelungs. Its construct offers two five-note phrases by an eerie piano, crowned with an ascent by strings misterioso. The Treasure Theme offers an ethereal misterioso of wonder with repeating four-note phrases by refulgent violins crowned with a harp arpeggio. The Travel Theme offers a plodding, syncopated cadence by low register woodwinds and horns, and pizzicato strings, which supports scenes with transports, or walking.

For our villains, we have Brunhild’s Theme, which supports her as the Queen of Iceland, the renown shieldmaiden, or Valkyrie. It offers an aggressive and forthright construct borne of a repeating seven-note statement with a two-note opening phrase followed by a trailing five-note descent into darkness. Brunhild is an undefeated warrior who is defeated and subjugated by Siegfried’s and Gunther’s treachery. Over the film her theme transforms and becomes malignant as she plots a terrible revenge. Lord Hagen’s Theme supports Siegfried’s nemesis and killer. Strings and woodwinds sinistre emote repeating and ascending five-note phrases, which speak to his menace. The Conflict Theme speaks to the ill-will and conflict that erupts between Brunhild and Kriemhild over their rank at court, and Kriemhild’s stupid revelation that it was Siegfried in magical guise that defeated her in battle, and subdued her in her bedroom. It offers a repeating seven-note statement that opens with a four-note declaration, followed by a three-note descent. Ominous and vengeful threatening strings and horns irato join for dark purpose, resounding over a violin tremolo. The Betrayal Theme supports King Gunther’s painful, and fateful decision to betray his blood brother Siegfried by having Hagen kill him. Huppertz provides a repeating molto tragico nine-note phrase by grieving strings and woodwinds. There is a wistful quality to the theme, which in many ways imparts to me the feeling of a threnody.

“Main Title” offers a dramatic score highlight where Huppertz in a masterstroke powerfully sets the tone of the film. Music commences with the roll of the white script opening credits against a black background. Reverential horns solenne offer repeating statements of the Main Theme, which swell powerfully, and with purpose. At 1:21 we close with a heroic flourish as the film title displays, announcing to all that an epic drama is about to unfold. Act I: “In Mime’s Wood Forge” features some of the score’s most warm and lyrical writing, which is used by Huppertz to bond us with the hero Siegfried. We open with a pastorale as we see a rainbow shining over the countryside as village people work. At 0:28 the music shifts to Mimes blacksmith’s station atop bold horns eroica as we see Siegfried forging the mythic sword Gram supported by a proud rendering of his theme as Mimes looks on. Huppertz syncs Siegfried’s hammering with actual anvil strikes beginning at 0:52. The music warms as Mimes looks on with amazement. At 1:37 proud horns resound and emote Siegfried’s Theme as he proudly holds up Gram, and admires his handiwork. At 2:10 the music lightens and become playful as he hands Gram to Mimes who is amazed when he effortlessly slices a floating feather in two. He returns Gram to Siegfried, whose proud theme returns as Mimes tells Siegfried he must ride home to Xanten.

“In Front of Mime’s Wood Forge” reveals Siegfried polishing Gram, as Mimes’ helper hobbles out of the cave carried by a plodding cadence by strings and comic woodwinds. The music toils as we see townsfolk descaling a cod and preparing food. At 0:35 Siegfried’s Theme sounds as he continues to polish his sword as Mimes exits the forge cave. The comic woodwind line resumes as we see Siegfried exit the cave. At 1:23 the Siegfried’s Theme supports the arrival of Grani, Siegfried’s beloved white stallion. We conclude the scene with interplay of the solemn Nibelungen Theme and the comic woodwind motif. “Hallway in the King’s Castle” opens with portentous horns and pizzicato strings as we see the stark silhouette of Castle Burgundy. Back at the village a pensive Siegfried’s Theme replete with tolling bells is heard as a village elder speaks of the great Castle of Burgundy at Worms on the Rhine River.

“Inside the Cathedral” reveals a solemn royal procession by King Gunther, his family and members of Court into the cathedral for mass. An austere rendering of the Nibelungen Theme by French horns, and a tolling church bell, which transfers to trumpets harp adornment. The melody softens as we shift to the ritual of the mass, and flows into Kriemhild’s Theme on solo oboe delicato at 1:13 as we see her. We segue on the melody at 1:25 into “In Front of Mime’s Wood Forge” a score highlight, which features fine thematic interplay. We see Siegfried enraptured as he listens to elder’s tale and at 2:12 a crescendo dramatico bursts forth as he declares; “I shall go there to win Kreimhild!” The village folk begin laughing at him, and his anger erupts, expressed with indignation by his theme as they flee and cower. He demands to know the way to Worms under pain of death empowered by his resolute theme. The music softens as his anger is assuaged by Mimes, who agrees to assist. The Love Theme opens at 2:55 and blossoms as he provides directions, joined by his theme bursting with romantic optimism as he walks Grani and is led down a path by Mimes. Aspirations born of the Love Theme gently carry Siegfried away. As he mounts Grani and pats Mimes goodbye, a warm and confident rendering of his theme carries his departure. Afterwards onscreen script by Mimes reads; “Farewell Siegfried, son of King Siegmund. You will never get to Worms!”

“At The Dragon’s Well” opens darkly with a dire rendering of the Dragon Theme as we see the behemoth waiting for prey. A grim interlude at 0:38 reveals Mimes turning back and returning to the village. At 0:47 the music brightens on a pastorale by Siegfried’s Theme as we see him riding on a forest path. At 1:44 thematic interplay commences between monstrous iterations of the lurking Dragon Theme laying in wait by a pond, and Siegfried’s Theme as he confidently continues his forest trek. We close darkly with menace as the dragon sees the approaching Siegfried who has dismounted and is walking to the pond to refresh himself, carried confidently by his theme. “Fight Between Siegfried And The Dragon” offers a magnificent score highlight as Siegfried battles the dragon. We open brightly with a heroic statement of Siegfried’s Theme as he sees the dragon and rushes forward unafraid to do battle. What unfolds is sterling thematic interplay, which supports the battle, with Siegfried and the Dragon’s themes contesting for supremacy. At 1:56 the tide of battle turns towards Siegfried cresting on his theme as he thrusts his sword into the dragon’s eye. The dragon is in pain and distracted and Siegfried sees an opening, charges empowered by horns eroico, and thrusts his sword at 2:10 into the dragon’s heart. A descent motif of expiation supports the dragon’s blood pouring out of his chest as it dies, supported by a last gasping statement of its theme.

“Linden Leaf/Singing Bird” offers a score highlight that features beautiful mystical rendering of Siegfried’s Theme by solo violin delicato as Siegfried dips his hand in the blood stream, smells it, and then gains illumination from a magical birdsong, which informs us; “If the dragon slayer would bathe in the dragon’s blood, hos body would become invincible, forever safe from sword and spear.” Dancing woodwinds, and uplifting strings support his smile and disrobing. At 0:56 we segue into “Bath In Blood/Linden Leaf” atop a descending Dragon Theme as Siegfried bathes in the flowing blood stream of the dragon. A leaf flutters down and lands between his shoulder blades, preventing coverage of this area by the dragon’s blood. We close triumphantly upon Siegfried’s Theme as our hero is blessed with invulnerability.

In Act II: “Hall of the Burgundians” we are graced by a woodwind pastorale with harp adornment as a bard sings of Siegfried for King Gunther, Kriemhild and the court. Slowly his theme emerges at 1:02 on warm strings as they listen. At 1:30 a fleeting descent into darkness atop the Dragon Theme joins as the bard sings of his great victory over the beast. We conclude returning to the gentle pastorale. In “Forest Meadow” we gaze upon a mist shrouded meadow. Huppertz sow a misterioso of uncertainty with a lurking Alberich’s Theme borne by celli misterioso and tremolo violins as see Alberich the dwarf, ruler of the elves and guardian of the Nibelung treasure seated in the hollow of a massive tree. At 0:31 as Siegfried slowly rides, Alberich dons the wonder cap of invisibility, and lays in wait. Tension rises as Alberich’s Theme is joined by contrapuntal strings of menace. At 1:06 we segue into “Alberich and Siegfried” atop a crescendo of violence as he attacks Siegfried, leaping from a tree. They fight and Siegfried prevails, stripping him of the wonder cap as the power Alberich’s Theme’s diminishes. When Siegfried prepares to slay him Alberich cries out; “Spare my life and I will give you the wonder cap. Whoever wears it becomes unseen or may take whatever form they chooses!” As Siegfried decides his fate Alberich’s Theme becomes aggrieved and desperate as he cries out; “The crown of the King of Northland, the ruler of the ice giant is being wrought here by the Nibelungen.” Siegfried agrees to his terms and agrees to follow Alberich and as they set off at 3:04 a plodding motif carries their progress. We close with a mounting tension as they traverse a narrow gorge and arrive at a cave.

“Limestone Cave” reveals Alberich and Siegfried at the mouth of the cave and Alberich’s invitation to follow as he proceeds into the cave. Siegfried is wary, on guard and follows as Huppertz drapes us with the ominous auras full of foreboding with the repeating seventeen-note Cave Theme by ominous celli and bass. At 0:29 they enter the cavernous main chamber, which Huppertz supports with the ethereal Treasure Theme by high register woodwinds and violins, adorned with harp arpeggios and chimes. Alberich enters a tunnel at the far end and proceeds deeper into the bowels of the cave with Siegfried on his guard as he follows. “The Nibelung’s Refuge” supports their entry into the Nibelugen treasure chamber where we behold a massive golden bowl filled with radiant treasure and jewels. Repeating five-note phrases release soaring refulgent strings of wonder alight with harp arpeggios as Siegfried stands awestruck. As they descend into the treasure chamber the ethereal Treasure Theme returns to carry their progress. At 0:46 Alberich lifts is radiant light globe to reveal a treasure trove and gilded vision as he states; “Spare my life and I will make you the richest king on earth!” They continue their descent supported by the Treasure Theme and arrive in the chamber where we see many Nibelungen chained to the massive bowl, which Siegfried ignores as he examines a number of jewels and artifacts. The music darkens empowered by Alberich’s Theme as we see Siegfried surrendering to the allure of gold. At 2:18 fanfare reale resounds as Alberich sees a glistening sword and calls to Siegfried; “No sword on earth compares to Balmung. The Nibelungen forged it in the fire of blood.” As Siegfried hoists it fanfare reale again resound and takes a few swings. Yet at 2:43 Alberich strikes with a magic carpet and tries to suffocate Siegfried, only to be cast to the ground. Siegfried’s Theme is triumphant and Alberich, who is now facing certain death, declares; “All is lost. Cursed be the heritage of the heir! Return with me to stone all ye whom from stone were wrought.” The music darkens as Siegfried looks at the chained Nibelungen and decides Alberich’s fate. We close at 4:02 with a triumphant rendering of Siegfried’s Theme, which closes with a glorious flourish as he raises the mighty Balmung to the heavens intent on achieving his destiny.

“Hall and Castle Bridge of Burgundy” offers a score highlight. A plaintive oboe, violin, kindred strings and harp adornment offer the Love Theme as a romance for strings, which support the bard Bolker singing to the court; “Siegfried became the dragon slayer, The Lord of the Nibelungen treasure. He subdued twelve kingdoms and twelve kings became his vassals.” Kriemhild is moved and gifts a cloak to the Bolker; “Bolker, take this cloak, as reward for your song! I embroidered it myself.” At 1:48 an imperial trumpeter declares the arrival of Siegfried and his royal guard of twelve warriors at the court of King Gunther of Burgundy, with a request for an audience. At 1:59 a glorious declaration of Siegfried’s Theme resounds as we see him waiting on the drawbridge for right of entry. The Nibelungen Theme sounds grimly at 2:22 as Lord Hagen Tronje stands up and declares; “King Gunther, let the dragon slayer go his ways, do not welcome him here!” Yet King Gunther declares, supported by warm horns reale; “No one shall say that at Worms one does not know the way kings greet each other! Siegfried, son of king Siegmund, has my welcome!” Warm, inviting music offers a prelude to heraldic fanfare at 3:24 and the Nibelungen Theme, which slowly builds as the order to open the gates is given. We close at 3:44 with horns brilliante, which support the opening of the massive gate, joined by a proud declaration of Siegfried’s Theme as he rides forth in regal splendor. “Kriemhild’s Bower” opens with a tentative Love Theme shifted among woodwinds as she looks down from her window at the grand entry of handsome King Siegfried. At 0:35 we segue into “Falcon Dream” when her chambermaid enters and Kriemheld states “I dreamt last night an awful dream… and now this dream comes to mind”. Huppertz supports with a portentous ghostly passage with shifting tides of menacing auras as we see black forms coalesce into black birds, which aggressively, and mercilessly attack a radiant white hawk. Afterwards a plaintive Love Theme joined by a portentous Nibelungen Theme emote as we see her distraught.

“Banquet Hall at Worms” offers a magnificent score highlight, where we are graced by Huppertz’s most romantic writing. We open with grand pomp and circumstance as King Siegfried enters the throne room supported by a regal rendering of his theme. Proud regality supports as the two kings greet each other and warmly lock arms. At 0:50 refulgent yearning strings romantico support Siegfried’s announcement; “I come, King Gunther, to ask you for your sister Krienhild’s hand!” As King Gunther and Hagen display that they are troubled at 1:07, Huppertz supports with solemn regality as we read; “King Gunther, too has marriage plans. He has set his heart on a bold and mighty maiden.” At 1:41 we change scene to the sight of an intense armor-clad Queen Brumhild, a Valkyrie, shooting an arrow supported by regal fanfare and her aggressive theme as we read; “Her name is Brunhild and she is queen of Iceland. Ringed by fire, her invincible castle towers in the northland”. Portentous horns and grim strings support Hagen who speaks of the challenges of such a match. At 2:42 the Nibelungen Theme joins after Hagen ponders and then states that perhaps Siegfried could help King Gunther win the hand of Brunhild. At 2:50 proud horns declare Sigfried’s Theme as he informs Hagen; “You are presumptuous, my Lord Hagen. Twelve have I for vassals, but vassal am I to no man, now or ever!” At 3:24 Hagen take offence and the two men prepare to battle empowered by a dire Nibelungen Theme. Yet at 3:51 Kriemhild enters the hall supported by the gentility of the Love Theme, and anger dissipates, with both men withdrawing as she descends the stairs. The theme blossoms as Siegfried slowly approaches her. A shift of the melody to violin and then oboe and flute supports his accepting a bowl of wine, drinking it, and then returning it to her with thanks. They are both enraptured with each other and Huppertz romantic writing here offers the finest of the score. Hagen whispers to King Gunther that Siegfried will indeed help him to win Brunhild. As King Gunther joins them, we build on a grand crescendo romantico as Kriemhild is escorted out. We climax gloriously as King Gunther, King Siegfried and Lord Hagen all grasp hand in noble solidarity.

Act III: “Brunhild’s Castle” offers a score highlight where Huppertz demonstrates mastery of his craft. It opens darkly with grim horns, and a mystical rendering of Brunhild’s Theme as we see a cleromancer casting stick lots to reveal her future. We read; “The dragon ship is carrying foreign heroes to your shores!” A change of scene reveals Siegfried and Gunther’s disembarking from their ship. At 1:21 trumpets resound as we read; “The Foreigners are nearing the flaming sea.” Dark horns empower a traveling motif in which is woven mystical statements of Brunhild’s Theme as we see the men arrive at her castle, set against a sky filled with radiating halos of light, and surrounded by a sea of rocks aflame. A diminuendo on her theme supports the cleromancer declaring; “If he be strong enough and favored by the gods, the flames will consume themselves and die.” At 2:24 foreboding horns resounds and the flames dissipate supported by a mystical rendering of Brunhild’s Theme. As they begin their trek to the castle, dire horn declarations and Brunhild’s mystical Theme carry their progress as she looks down from the battlements. At 3:54 King Gunther orders heraldic horns to resound at the castle gate as they bid to enter. We close pensively on a mystical iteration of Brunhild’s Theme as she declares; “My maidens, help me put on my armor, this will be a fight I have never fought before!”

“Brunhild’s Hall” opens with repeating grim statements of the Nibelungen Theme by strings grave as the gates open, and King Gunther, King Siegfried and their troops enter. As they enter the throne room the theme assumes a more regal articulation as they pause. At 0:49 a pensive, mystical rendering of her theme supports Brunhild as she sits on her throne and observes the men. The music gains energy and intensity as she rises and walks towards Siegfried. At 1:21 Brunhild’s fanfare resounds as she declares; “Welcome, hero, for the fight for life or death!” The music becomes pensive on Brunhild’s Theme as Siegfried declares; “Neither life nor death do I desire from you, Brunhild. It is King Gunther who woos you!” Her theme assumes anger as she confronts King Gunther and declares; “Before it is evening King Gunther, your smothered weapons will adorn my hall.” The music swells with drama now resounds with a threatening resolve upon her theme as Siegfried departs to prepare Gunther’s ship for his new bride., and Brunhild declares; “Let the battle begin King Gunther!” An ominous crescendo rises up at 2:25 as Brunhild and Gunther depart to the field of battle, carried forthrightly by some of the finest music of the score. At 0:17 we segue and conclude the powerful exposition in “In Front of the Castle Gate” where we see Siegfried at the castle gate don the cap of invisibility and reenter the castle. In a scene change at 0:44 Brunhild arrives at the field of battle carried by a martial rendering of her theme, joined by King Gunther carried by a pensive Nibelungen Theme.

In “The Arena” we open with a mystical rendering of her theme, which becomes menacing as she declares to Gunther; “You must defeat me three times, with a stone, a spring, and a spear”. We close ominously with a mystical rendering of her theme. “The Brunhild-Gunther Competition” reveals the first test, tossing a large rock. Her theme, full of aggression carries her into position. The at 1:03 the music swells and crashes at 1:46 as she grabs a large rock, tosses it, and revels as the it lands yards away. She then springs with a great leap, landing far away. She revels with her theme ascendant, as the invisible Siegfried whispers to Gunther to fear not as he will use his strength to help him win the day. Tremolo violins carry Gunther to the rock and an ascent motif at 2:23 supports him lifting the massive rock, with soaring strings supporting his throw. Afterwards Siegfried heaves him in a spring jump that far surpasses hers. At 3:03 Brunhild is stunned and an angry rendering of her theme supports as she arms herself with a shield and spear for the final test. She has first throw, with tremolo violins sowing tension. She throws her spear, which Gunther parries as Siegfried holds the shield firm. Horns vittorio resound at 4:13 as Gunther holds firm. The music builds on a dramatic rendering of Brunhild’s Theme as Gunther grabs his spear and raises his shield to obscure Siegfried grasping it and then hurling it with such strength at 4:45 as to shatter her shield. She is stunned, falls to the ground and we close on a devastation borne by her theme.

Act IV: “The Rhine Valley” reveals sumptuous languorous strings joined by playful woodwinds as we behold a panorama of the Rhine River valley. Guards see the approach of the King’s ship and light a hilltop beacon as a soldier rides home to announce his return and wedding preparations. At 1:04 horns bravura resounds with Siegfried’s Anthem as the ship docks in “Brunhild’s Royal Ship”. As King Gunther enters her cabin and announces their arrival at Worms, tremolo strings of tension user in a grave rendering of her theme. As he reaches for her at 2:05, her theme explodes in anger as she springs up and attacks him, wrestles him to the ground, declaring with contempt “Are you really the man who defeated me threefold?” At 2:38 a grave rendering of Brunhild’s Theme joins as Hagen enters, Gunther gets up, and she rejects the offering of his hand, declaring “I am your captive, but I shall never be your wife!” At 3:06 horns tragico resound and usher in a dirge as she begins her walk off the ship to a life in captivity. We close at 3:51 with heraldic fanfare that announces their castle arrival and entry into the royal enclosure.

“Castle Yard in Front of the Cathedral” reveals a royal reception for the new queen. A plaintive rendering of the Nibelungen Theme replete with tolling bells cast a dark pall on the reception, with the Brunhild visibly aggrieved. The music swells with revulsion at 0:47 as Brunhild rejects a welcoming kiss of affection by Kriemhild. They advance carried by a swelling Nibelungen Theme as the Bishop arrives to give his blessings. At 2:18 the Love Theme enters on solo oboe delicato as Siegfried comes to Kriemhild. When King Gunther joins, Siegfried declares; “Keep your word, King Gunther, as I have kept mine!” As the Love Theme blossoms, the King declares; “If Kriemhild gives her consent, O hero, we shall celebrate a double wedding today.” Tension horns enter at 3:22 as Brunhild questions the marriage of Princess Kriemhild to a vassal. Warm horns of resolve support King Gunther’s firm reply that Siegfried is not vassal, but instead after today his blood brother. “In The Cathedral” the Nibelungen Theme supports the procession of the two couples up the cathedral stairs to be married, swelling powerfully with a grand statement as they enter. Inside as the ritual unfolds, and the two couples are married, a more lyrical string borne rendering of the Nibelungen Theme supports.

“Old Thingstead” opens full of foreboding as we see an exterior shot of the palace at night. Inside Brunhild’s bedchamber she sits alone, supported at 0:16 by a somber rendering of her theme. At 0:26 we segue darkly into “Hagen, Siegfried, Gunther” as we see Hagen performing a blood oath ceremony between Siegfried and Gunther, whose wrist wounds drip blood, which comingle in a bowl. He declares; “Blood is mingling with red blood; the drops fuse inseparably. Whoever forsakes loyalty to the blood brother will perish at the wayside, all honor lost!” Huppertz solemnly entwines the Nibelungen and Siegfried’s Themes to support the ceremony. At 1:13 solemn horns reale voice Siegfried’s Theme to support each man partaking a drink to bind themselves to the oath. “Kriemhild’s Bedchamber” reveals her servants preparing her for her wedding night supported by a tender rendering of the Love Theme by oboe delicato. In “Hall of the Burgundians” the music darkens on the Brunhild’s Theme with interplay of the Nibelungen Theme outside her bedchamber as he meets with Siegfried, and Hagen who declares; “Brunhild has been defeated, not cowed. Shall the King of Burgundy by scorned by an obstinate woman?” At 0:45 confident horns declare Siegfried’s Theme as Hagen presses him; “Damned be the deed half done! Will you forsake your friend who gave you his own sister?” The music darkens and Siegfried’s Theme becomes aggrieved as Hagen pulls the wonder cap from Siegfried’s belt and declares; “The magic cap will change you into what your wish. Take Gunther’s form and break Brunhild’s iron will!” We conclude with trepidation as Siegfried dons the wonder cap, transforms into King Gunther, and enters her bedchamber where Brunhild waits.

“The Fight Between Gunther and Brunhild” reveals Siegfried as imposter approaching Brunhild, who attacks him. Huppertz unleashes a torrent of violence empowered by a fierce and defiant Brunhild Theme as they struggle. Slowly Siegfried’s superior strength prevails with Brunhild’s Theme weakening, as she crashes to the floor in defeat. At 1:02 Siegfried exits, meets King Gunther outside and removes the wonder cap, returning to his own appearance. A pensive Nibelungen Theme supports the moment and carries King Gunther into the bedchamber where Brunhild lies vanquished at the foot of the bed. Her wounded theme enters at 1:53 as we see a distraught Siegfried in the corridor holding an arm bracelet, which he tore off her during the struggle. At 2:25 a welcoming romance for strings supports Siegfried’s joining Kriemhild for their wedding night. We close darkly on the Nibelungen Theme as Gunther hesitates to touch Brunhild and extinguishes the room’s torch bringing darkness.

Act V: “Procession of the Mules” reveals events a year and a half later where discord erupts between the two queens when the Nibelungen treasure arrives at Worms. Grim horns support the onscreen script relating discord and we transition to the plodding Travel Theme as the caravan transporting the treasure. “Hall of the Burgundians” reveals Hagen confiding to King Gunther; “O king, Burgundy’s glory is wanning, we need the Nibelungen treasure.” Gunther is unreceptive, and Hagen adds; “It would be folly to reject what Siegfried offers you as brother, and Kriemhild is worth more than all the gold in the world!” Huppertz supports with the shimmering allure of the Treasure Theme. At 1:15 we segue into “Kriemhild’s Bedchamber” atop the happiness of the Love Theme as we see Kriemhild going through her jewelry box. At 1:58 the serpentine Bracelet Theme joins as her maid finds Brunhild’s snake arm bracelet taken by Siegfried. Kriemhild likes it and places it on her arm, not knowing it was Brunhild’s. “Castle Garden/Kriemhild and Siegfried” reveals Kriemhild joining Siegfried in the castle garden in which Huppertz creates an idyllic pastorale ambiance with sumptuous strings romantico and trilling woodwinds. The Love Theme blossoms as our lovers embrace and kiss. At 0:42 discontent enters as Brunhild gazes out her window and sees the two lovers. Tension enters at 1:04 when Kriemhild shows him the snake arm bracelet she found, which causes alarm in his eyes. An aggrieved rendering of the Love Theme supports his demand that she forever put it away as it guards an ugly secret. The melody becomes plaintive and gains fervor as he takes her by the hand and declares; “Listen, Kriemhild, at how I won the amulet – and keep silent!” We close with menace on Brunhild’s Theme as we see her leave the window and walk through a corridor.

“Castle Bridge and Hall of the Burgundians” opens with the plodding Travel Theme as King Gunther and Hagen are informed of the arrival of the Nibelung treasure caravan. A tension bridge at 0:31 introduces the Treasure Theme as Brunhild joins Hagen and King Gunther. Interplay of the Nibelungen Theme and Brunhild’s Theme supports her asking how long Kriemhild and Siegfried will continue to visit? To which Gunther replies; “They stay for the sake of my mother. Would you, Brunhild, be willing to take up the daughter’s place for Queen Ure?” At 1:00 we segue into “Kriemhild and Siegfried” in the garden on the Love Theme as Siegfried states; “Your brother’s honor is entwined with this amulet. It never should be seen again by human eyes!” Extensive development of the Love Theme follows with oblique references to Brunhild’s Theme. We conclude with a reprise of the idyllic garden pastorale, which supports Kriemhild’s departure. “In Front of the Treasure Hall” an excited courier runs into the garden to fetch Siegfried, informing him that the treasure caravan had arrived. An ebullient Siegfried’s Theme carries their progress, and the Siegfried’s supervision of the off-loading. At 0:20 we segue into “Hall of the Burgundians” carried by the alluring Treasure Theme, which supports King Gunther, Hagen and Brunhild observing from a widow above. They are taken aback by Siegfried generously tossing parts of the treasure to townsfolk. The theme darkens as Hagen declares; “It seems to me high time, Lord King, that you send Siegfried back home to Xanten!” In “Brunhild’s Bedchamber” a sinister serpentine motif supports King Gunther’s reply; “Never shall I bid him go. He must leave of his own free will!” At 0:23 Brunhild departs King Gunther and Hagen carried by a menacing rendering of her theme as we see sinister purpose in her eyes. In her bedchamber she sits and stews, her now malignant theme joined by tolling bells. At 1:14 the idyllic Garden Theme supports Kriemhild’s departure to the cathedral. At 1:28 Brunhild’s Theme, full of dark purpose announces her intention to join the Queen at the cathedral. We close darkly on a misterioso of uncertainty.

“In Front of the Cathedral” offers a processione solenne, with subtle undercurrents of menace supporting Brunhild and her ladies in waiting walking up the cathedral stairs behind Kriemhild. At 0:53 we segue into “Confrontation Between Kriemhild and Brunhild”, a powerful score highlight. Brunhild races up in front of Kriemhild, raises he arm to stop, and declares; “Stay, Kriemhild, the wife of a vassal may not precede the Queen of Burgundy!” Brunhild’s Theme erupts with angry menace. At 1:22 rapidly ascending strings carry Kriemhild’s run in front of Brunhild declaring; “How did you dare refer to Siegfried my husband?” Aggrieved strings express her outrage, which is worsened by Brunhild’s cutting response; “Siegfried introduced himself to me as Gunther’s vassal and servant. He did servant’s work for my husband!” At 1:52 Brunhild’s Theme is powerfully ascendant as Kriemhild replies; “You, whom he disdained, you, whom he gave away, you dare to belittle Siegfried!” A diminuendo supports Brunhild’s derisive laughter. At 3:01 the angry Conflict Theme erupts as she declares; “Make way for the Queen of Burgundy vassal woman!” She again walks ahead, only to be passed and again confronted by Kriemhild who foolishly reveals her stolen amulet. A torrent of anger and outrage erupts as Brunhild is stunned and demands answers, to which Kriemhild replies; “The carrier of the magic helmet who, disguised as Gunther, defeated you three times. Siegfried my husband gave it to me!” Brunhild is angry, and runs to confront King Gunther below carried by a string furioso. When he admits the truth, Brunhild flees to the drawbridge propelled by an orchestral torrent of anger. At 4:05 the Conflict Theme erupts and joins in unholy communion with a vengeful Brunhild’s Theme when she is caught and shouts out to both Lord Hagen and King Gunther “Siegfried must die!”

“In Front of the Treasure Hall” opens darkly, joined by the Conflict Theme as we see Siegfried being informed of the confrontation between Brunhild and his wife. A trilling woodwind descent at 0:23 carries his run to Kriemhild, joined by a foreboding Conflict Theme as he embraces and comforts Kriemhild. At 0:38 we segue into “Castle Yard” atop Hagen’s Theme as he declares to Siegfried; “Your babbling, hero, was worse than murder!” In “Brunhild’s Bedchamber” a dire crescendo of rage supports King Gunther in Brunhild’s bedchamber trying to assuage her anger, yet she is resolute, declaring, Siegfried must die! He responds “Siegfried is safe from your wrath; none can slay the dragon slayer”, but she will have none of it. We end on a portentous tremolo of doom as Hagen joins and adds “Save in one spot, where the linden leaf, is he vulnerable as other men!” At 0:45 the molto tragico Betrayal Theme supports Siegfried escorting Kriemhild home, with the malignant Conflict Theme joining as we see Brunhild and Hagen conspiring. Her malevolent theme joins as Hagen beseeches; “King Gunther, let me deal with the dragon slayer!” The Conflict Theme emotes with dark purpose, joined at 1:31 by a reprise of the Betrayal Theme as Gunther struggles with his decision, not wishing to injure his beloved sister. Brunhild’s malignant theme joins to support her lie as she speaks into his ear; “The one who took the amulet from me made me his wife, took my maidenhood from me!” King Gunther is duped by this lie, devastated by the revelation, and a descent of sadness ushers in Brunhild’s Theme, which resounds with monstrous menace. The Conflict Theme returns at 3:02 as Gunther makes a fateful decision and orders Hagen to prepare a royal hunt, where we will kill a mad dog. We close darkly with horns of doom as the die are cast.

Act VI: “Hall of the Burgundians” opens darkly with a molto tragico rendering of the Betrayal Theme, which yields to Hagen’s Theme, filled with dark purpose as he sits and contemplates Siegfried’s murder. At 0:26 a tentative Kriemhild’s Theme supports her arrival to speak to Hagen. Her theme is beleaguered and entwines with the Betrayal Theme as she reaches him and he states; “Can you keep a secret?” She agrees and he relates that a secret message warns of a war against Burgundy, and that the hunt may turn into a hunt for men! At 1:55 woodwinds of woe usher in ominous rising strings as Siegfried’s warm theme supports Hagen declaration at 2:39; “Good for you Kriemhild, that your husband is the dragon slayer, the invincible!” Aching woodwinds enter and usher in a plaintive Kriemhild’s Theme, as she sits and contemplates Hagen’s words. At 3:31 her theme gains vitality as she asks; “Who warrants that in the heat of battle not a chance a blade should pierce him where the lime leaf fell?” Her theme is sustained as Hagan cunningly takes advantage, saying that he must know the point of vulnerability if he is to protect him. She foolishly trusts him, agreeing to mark the spot on his tunic with an X as Hagen departs with satisfaction. At 5:17 we segue darkly to Brunhild’s bedchamber, her malignant theme joining as King Gunther informs her that he is departing on the hunt. She gets the final word as she retorts; “Mind my vow, King Gunther, I shall not eat or drink until my disgrace has been vindicated!” Her vengeful theme and the Conflict Theme join with dark purpose as King Gunther departs.

“Kriemhild’s Bedchamber” reveals a contented Kriemhild supported by her theme sowing an “X” on his tunic to mark his spot of vulnerability. At 0:13 a surge of string melevolo emote Hagen’s Theme as he practices his spear thrusts, with an orchestral strike resounding at 0:22 as he impales the ground. A plaintive and tremulous Love Theme returns as she helps Siegfried don his tunic, revealing the “X” she sowed between his shoulder blades. At 1:00 we segue into “Castle Yard” atop horns of the hunt, which resound as we see the hunting party assembled in the courtyard. At 1:06 the Parting Theme that shifts among solo woodwinds enters and speaks to the impending loss of Kriemhild’s beloved Siegfried for which she is tragically complicit. The Love and Parting Themes entwine as she begs him not to go, relating a dream where he died, struck down by a furious boar. At 1:56 the Hunting Fanfare resounds eliciting Siegfried to depart. With the Love and Parting Themes still entwined she runs to him and again begs him not to go. He replies to fear not as tonight he and King Gunther will reconcile. As they share a parting kiss at 2:50, a third and grand declaration of the Hunting Fanfare resounds. Now alone, the Parting and Love Themes continue their interplay until 3:48 when she runs to the window, and waves goodbye to him supported by a grand statement of the Love Theme as he turns back under a blossoming cherry tree and waves back. We close with uncertainty as he runs to join the hunting party.

“Castle Bridge” reveals the Hunting Fanfare propelling a grand processionale reale as the royals, their vassals and servants depart across the mammoth castle drawbridge. Woven into the musical fabric are strains of a lurking Conflict Theme. At 0:43 we segue into “Kriemhild’s Bedchamber” where portentous tremolo strings support Kriemhild’s expressing feelings of doom to her mother, with the Conflict Theme joining as she faints in her arms. “High Forest/Forest Lake” opens with script relating the hunt lasted all day until sundown. A grand extended rendering of the Hunting Fanfare supports a processionale reale as we see dozens of killed game being brought back and Siegfried crossing a forest lake. At 1:11 a despondent King Gunther sits down supported by grieving statements of the Betrayal Theme as he is joined by Hagen. At 2:10 we segue into “Hunt” atop rousing Hunting Fanfare, which heralds Siegfried’s return to camp, ushering in a triumphant statement of his theme. Comic woodwinds support an interlude of Siegfried asking for wine from a cook. Hagen informs him that the wine cart overturned, but a cool brook was nearby. A carefree Siegfried’s Theme carries him up to King Gunther and Hagen. In “The Source” Hagen reveals a nearby refreshing brook and challenges him to a run to it. Huppertz does not speak to Hagen’s deception and dark purpose, instead speaking form Siegfried’s perspective, providing a beautiful pastorale.

“The Storage Yard” reveals Siegfried turning to see King Gunther still in distress supported by a tragic Betrayal Theme. He goes to him and beseeches him to be friends again. He declines his hand, but say yes, when you are back from the spring as the theme ends as a dirge. At 0:58 we segue into “The Contest” as the race begins. Siegfried runs off carried by his theme as Hagen grabs his spear and lurks, his malevolent theme supporting as he stealthily moves in the shadows to obtain a position to strike the mortal blow. Back at camp a fleeting Kriemhild Theme plays as a distraught King Gunther grieves. “Siegfried’s Death” opens with swelling statements of Hagen’s Theme as he prepares to strike. He flings his spear with deadly precision carried by a flight motif, with an orchestral wail supporting the mortal strike at 0:14 to Siegfried’s vulnerable area between his shoulder blades. Horns of doom resound, joined by a drum roll of death as he is stunned, yet he summons all his strength to stand up as the orchestra wails. Hagen’s evil theme joins as he returns to King Gunther. At 1:04 a wounded Siegfried’s Theme joined by the Betrayal Theme supports his painful stumbling to reach Hagen and King Gunther. At 1:23 a repeating descent motif of death joins as two guards pick Siegfried up and aid his walk to Hagen and King Gunther. We build at 1:59 on a crescendo of anger as Siegfried approaches and finally reaches King Gunther and Hagen. At 2:22 the orchestra explodes in a painful cry of betrayal as he sees guilt in both Hagen and King Gunther’s eyes. At 2:39, with his last strength Siegfried, empowered by a crescendo of his now vengeful theme picks up his shield to crush them, only to succumb to his wound and fall dead, his last gasp – Kriemhild. We close with a lament, which culminates atop of the Betrayal Theme in a grand flourish. We end as Hagen extends his arm and declares “The hunt is over!”, punctuated by an orchestral blast.

Act VII: “Kriemhild’s Bedchamber” displays “Kriemhild swears revenge to Hagen Tronje” supported by a crescendo of vengeance. At 0:16 we see Kriemhild waking up to wind blowing her curtains as a dog howl below. Huppertz sow unease with a restless sea of tremulous strings and woodwinds of woe. Fleeting references to the Betrayal Theme support the return of the hunting party. At 1:01 a grim Hagen’s Theme rises as we see Brunhild sitting in her room and Hagen banging the gate for entry. At 1:52 the gate opens in “Castle Yard” and a marcia funebre supports the entry with Siegfried’s corpse. A plaintive bassoon sow anxiety as we see Kriemhild becoming increasingly agitated. At 2:20 aching woodwinds emote the Betrayal Theme, joined by a plaintive Love Theme, which ushers in an accelerando of dread as Kriemhild runs to an anteroom and discovers to her horror, Siegfried’s dead body on a liter. “Kriemhild’s Bedchamber/Kriemhild Realizes Siegfried’s Death” offers a poignant score highlight. It reveals a stunned Kriemhild walking very slowly towards Siegfried’s body supported by tremolo violins, which usher in Siegfried’s Theme as a lament. She kneels at his head and as she caresses his face, and then lays her hand over his heart, a wistful Love Theme emotes her disbelief and desolation. At 1:23 the music brightens in a flashback of her last sight of him, waving goodbye under a blossoming cherry tree, yet the music darkens on the Betrayal Theme as we see the tree wither, and transform into a frightful, ghostly skull. At 1:51 we return to her vigil supported by the Love Theme emoted as a somber marcia funebre.

The following three cues offer the score’s emotional apogee, a testament to Huppertz’s mastery of his craft where music and film narrative achieve cinematic perfection. “Brunhild’s Bedchamber” reveals King Gunther joining her in her bedchamber as we are bathed by the resurgent darkness of her theme. He states; “You may break your fast Brunhild, Siegfried is dead.” At 0:36 a maniacal crescendo of twisted joy erupts and unleashes her triumphant Theme as Brunhild stands and declares; “Hail to you, King Gunther, for the sake of a woman’s lie you have slain your most loyal firend!” King Gunther is devastated, writhes in pain, and flees the room as her maniacal eyes fill with the sweet taste of revenge and she laughs. After his departure, the storm subsides, she bows her head and closes her eyes supported by a diminuendo of her theme. “Kriemhild’s Bedchamber” reveals Kriemhild’s mourning vigil for Siegfried with her friends in attendance. An aching Parting Theme by solo oboe triste supports as King Gunther arrives. At 0:25 a grieving Love Theme joins and offers an exquisite passage by solo violin as she caresses Siegfried’s face, joined at 1:17 Hagen’s malignant theme, which supports his arrival. Kriemhild looks up at him with a damning gaze and at 1:31 a crescendo of rage slowly commences an inexorable intensification as she uncovers his tunic to reveal his bleeding wound. We swell on Siegfried’s and the Love Theme which erupt with rage as she stands, points a damning finger at Hagen, and declares to her brother at 2:07; “I call on you for justice, King Gunther! Hagen Tronje has slain my husband!” Yet her father looks down in shame, and full of guilt as the betrayal Theme joins in unholy communion with a sinister Hagen’s Theme. Horns tristi sound as King Gunther walks away, stands by Hagen and raises a protective arm in front of him, joined at 3:17 by the bitterness of the Parting Theme, which wells up. The theme’s articulation becomes molto tragico as one by one male members of the court join the King in shielding Hagen as we read; “Loyalty for loyalty Kriemhild, His life is ours. His fate is ours. Our breast is his shield.” Kriemhild writhes in agony and at 4:47 horns of betrayal support her disbelief in King Gunther’s complicity. Siegfried’s Theme joins as a marcia funebre, replete with tolling bells as men come and take his body away as. At 5:32 the dark brooding malice of Brunhild’s supports her in her bedchamber as she hears the tolling bells, and pulls her black gown to form a shroud around her.

At 6:06 we segue darkly into “Kriemhild’s Oathe” atop a dirge and tolling bells as she walks towards King Gunther and Hagen. At 6:29 a crescendo of anguish erupts with horns sofferenti, which flows into an aching Love Theme of grief as Kriemhild declares; “You might try to hide among my clan, behind the altars of God, or at the end of the world, you cannot escape my vengeance Hagen Tronje!” Her molto tragico music dissipates on a diminuendo of loss as she turns, and slowly walks away bearing that which is unbearable. We segue seamlessly into “In the Catherdral” where we see Siegfried laying at the foot of the altar. A solemn Nibelungen Theme offered as a lamentation carries Kriemhild’s walk to him, where she discovers the dead body of Brunhild. She declares; “Announce to King Gunther, my brother, the Queen of Burgundy is dead!” A relieved rendering of the Nibelungen Theme carries the announcement. We close with Kriemhild’s kneeling at Siegfried’s head supported by wistful strings romantico, which slowly dissipate, yet bear within, a radiant kernel of hope.

I would like to commend Frank Strobel and the creative team of Pan Classics for this monumental recording of the complete film score to Gottfried Huppertz’s masterpiece “Die Nibelungen”. This masterwork of German cinema has long been a Holy Grail for lovers of film score art, and we consider this album, a Godsend. The audio quality is exemplary, and the performance of the Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra under Frank Strobel’s peerless baton, outstanding. Huppertz understood that he was being provided an epic fantasy tale where he would have to speak to the heroism of Siegfried, his love of Kriemhild, and the conspiracy of Queen Brunhild, King Gunther and Lord Hagen, which bring about his tragic death. In conceiving his soundscape, Huppertz chose to create leitmotifs for the major characters, beasts, fantasy elements, as well as critical emotional drivers. To that end, thirteen themes were created, which brought the characters to life and drove the film’s narrative. The main theme, or Nibelungen Theme opens the film, and in a masterstroke, Huppertz masterfully set the tone of the film, informing the audience that an epic tale awaits. Our larger-than-life hero Siegfried is animated by a bright, confident, and forthright horn declared major modal construct abounding with optimism. His heroic defeat of the dragon and duplicitous Alberich speak to his strength, fighting prowess and intellect. Equally impressive and achingly beautiful is Kriemhild’s Theme, which also serves as her and Siegfried’s Love Theme. The solo oboe delicato and blossoming of the melody on sumptuous strings romantico offer rapturous beauty. Later, following Siegfried’s tragic death, the Parting Theme offers an aching beauty as its the melodic line is masterfully shifted among solo woodwinds. It is however with the juxtaposed villain themes where the pathos of this tragic tale is brought home. Masterful is the evolution of Brunhild’s Theme from a misterioso, to bold defiance, and final descent into malignant malevolence. Lord Hagen, Siegfried’s treacherous nemesis, offers a dark, foreboding theme, which bears a lethal, lurking menace. I believe however, that the score reaches its zenith during the aftermath of Siegfried’s murder. Kriemhild is heart-broken, suffers an unbearable grief and is devastated when her demand for familial vengeance against Lord Hagen is rejected by King Gunther and her family, as they are all complicit. Huppertz, during the scenes of the vigil, Kriemhild’s demand for vengeance, and funeral, offers a testament to his mastery of his craft. We bear witness as his music elevates the film to the sublime, achieving one of the most powerful and poignant confluences in cinematic history. I consider this masterfully conceived and executed score a masterpiece of the Silent Film Age and his Magnum Opus. I highly recommend you purchase this quality album for your collection.

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to a magnificent 24-minute suite; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RIaVxJnSgSU

Track Listing:

  • Main Title (1:48)
  • In Mimes Wood Forge (4:08)
  • In Front of Mimes Wood Forge (2:51)
  • Hallway in the King’s Castle (1:10)
  • Inside the Cathdral/In Front of Mimes Forge (4:52)
  • At the Dragon’s Well (2:53)
  • Fight Between Siegfried and the Dragon (3:21)
  • Linden Leaf/Singing Bird/Bath in Blood/Linden Leaf (1:34)
  • Hall of the Burgundians (2:27)
  • Forest Clearing/Alberich and Siegfried (3:47)
  • Limestone Cave (2:05)
  • The Nibelung’s Refuge (4:34)
  • Hall of the Mountain Bridge of the Burgundians (4:28)
  • Kriemhild’s Bower/Falcon Dream (2:07)
  • Banquet Hall at Worms (7:35)
  • Brunhild’s Castle (4:34)
  • Brunhild’s Hall (3:45)
  • In Front of the Castle Gate (1:30)
  • The Arena (1:04)
  • The Competition Between Brunhild and Gunther (5:16)
  • The Rhine Valley/Brunhild’s Royal Ship (4:19)
  • Castle Yard in Front of the Cathedral (3:49)
  • In the Cathedral (2:18)
  • Old Thingstead/Hagen. Siegfried, Gunther (2:01)
  • Kriemhild’s Bedchamber (0:25)
  • Hall of the Burgundians (3:00)
  • The Fight Between Gunther and Brunhild (3:10)
  • Procession of the Mules (0:59)
  • Hall of the Burgundians/Kriemhild’s Bedchamber (2:08)
  • Castle Garden/Kriemhild and Siegfried (2:46)
  • Castle Bridge and Hall of the Burgundians/Kriemhild and Sigfried (2:30)
  • In Front of the Treasure Hall/Hall of the Burgundians (1:08)
  • Brunhild’s Bedchamber (2:03)
  • In Front of the Cathedral/Confrontation Between Kriemhild and Brunhild (4:50)
  • In Front of the Treasure Hall/Castle Yard (1:06)
  • Brunhild’s Bedchamber (3:50)
  • Hall of the Burgundians (6:17)
  • Kriemhild’s Bedchamber/Castle Yard (4:08)
  • Castle Bridge/Kriemhild’s Bedchamber (1:24)
  • High Forest/Forest Lake/Hunt (3:15)
  • The Source (0:48)
  • The Storage Yard/Contest (1:37)
  • Source/Siegfried’s Death (3:54)
  • Kriemhild’s Bedchamber/Castle Yard (3:08)
  • Kriemhild’s Bedchamber/Kriemhild Realizes Siegfried’s Death (2:27)
  • Brunhild’s Bedchamber (1:19)
  • Kriemhild’s Bedchamber/Kriemhild’s Oath (7:45)
  • In the Cathedral (3:02)

Running Time: 145 minutes 15 seconds

Pan Classics PC-10345 (1924/2015)

Music composed by Gottfried Huppertz. Conducted by Frank Strobel. Performed by the Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra Original orchestrations by Marco Jovic. Recorded and mixed by Thomas Eichler. Score produced by Gottfried Huppertz. Album produced by Udo Wüstendörfer, Michael Sawall and Andrea Zietzschmann.

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