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FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS – Victor Young

GREATEST SCORES OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

Original Review by Craig Lysy

American novelist Ernest Hemmingway’s latest novel “For Whom The Bell Tolls” (1940) offered a potent commentary on the Spanish Civil War, which many studios believed could be adapted to the big screen. However, Hemmingway’s demand of $100,000 for the film rights, and control of selecting the principal actors was a non-starter. Paramount however, thought differently having successfully produced his earlier novel “A Farewell to Arms” (1932), which agreed to pay an astounding $150,000 for the film rights and acceded to Hemmingway’s demand that he would choose the two leads – Gary Cooper and Ingrid Bergman. After Cecil B. DeMille dropped out of producing and directing the film, Sam Wood took over the reins, and would produce and direct the film with a budget of $3 million. He brought in Louis Bromfield to rework the existing script, with Dudley Nichols finally completing the screen play. An exceptional cast was assembled including Gary Cooper as Robert Jordan, Ingrid Bergman as Maria, Akim Tamiroff as Pablo, Katina Paxinou as Pilar, and Joseph Calleia as El Sordo.

The story is set in Spain during the Spanish civil war (1936–1939), which pitted republicans and allies loyal to the Leftist Popular Front government of the Second Republic against the conservative Nationalists and fascist allies led by Francisco Franco. It was a conflict involving class struggle, religion versus secularism and democracy versus dictatorship. Many idealists from across the world left their countries for the romanticism of fighting with republicans in a noble cause defending liberty against the rising tide of Fascism, including American Robert Jordan. He joins a group of anti-fascist guerrillas and falls in love with one of its members Maria whose mother was gang raped by Falangist nationalists and then with her father murdered. As they wage the fight it becomes increasingly clear that the tide of battle is turning in favor of the Fascists. Guerilla leader Pablo decides on a desperate plan to blow up a crucial bridge to allow republican forces to safely withdraw and regroup. They succeed; however, Robert is mortally wounded and decides to remain so the others may escape, causing much wrenching grief to Maria. They part ways and we close the film with Robert unloading volleys of machine gun fire in a noble and defiant last stand. The film was a modest commercial success, as well as a critical success earning nine Academy Award nominations for Best Picture, Best Cinematography, Best Film Editing, Best Art Direction, Best Film Score, Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor, winning one award for Best Supporting Actress.

Victor Young had been on contract with Paramount Studios since 1935 and was one of premier composers with a track record of success having been nominated fourteen times for an Academy Award. A well know workaholic; Young took to the assignment with his usual passion, composing the entire score in five weeks, with an additional two weeks taken to fully record it. He related the found writing the score “harder than writing a symphony…Much harder in fact”. Young understood that for authenticity he had to infuse his soundscape with Spanish auras, sensibilities and local instruments such as castanets and tambourine so as to speak to time and place. To that end he assiduously researched and embraced the Castilian spirit of composers Albéniz, Granados and de Falla.

To support his soundscape Young provides three primary themes including; the Republican Theme, which serves as the identity of the republican fighter’s. Martial drums and strings dramatico offer strength, and forthright determination, which speak to their cause in defense of liberty and freedom. Young bathes us in classic Castilian auras, which immediately speak to setting, but we also discern sadness in the notes, an allusion to the coming tragedy. The Love Theme is one for the ages and offers many of the score’s most transcendent moments. It speaks to the romance between Roberto and Maria, fated to never be fully realized. Its string borne melody is passionate, and so full of yearning, a tale of two lovers caught in the cruel and unforgiving cross current of war as we bear witness to a great nation beset by a brutal and unforgiving civil war. Pilar’s Theme offers a plaintive melody by Spanish classical guitar, which speaks to her doubts, her feelings that she is ugly and unworthy, vulnerabilities guarded under a gruff and tough exterior. For our villains, the Fascists, Young supports their collective identity with dire horns and drums militare, which speaks to their menace and brutality.

“Studio Logo” reveals the Universal Studio logo display whose usual anthem has been replaced by a statement of the Republican Theme. “Overture”, which is not found on the album, opens the film and plays to a black screen. For 3:42 minutes Young graces us with a parade of his primary themes. We begin at 0:42 film time with a serpentine flute orientali, which opens the piece and ushers in the sumptuous string borne Love Theme embellished with classical Spanish guitar and harp adornment. At 2:32 we flow into Pilar’s Theme atop classical Spanish guitar. At 3:14 a molto tragico rendering of the Republican Theme is provided a powerful exposition, which closes the piece. “Main Title” opens with a tolling bell which ushers in the Paramount Studios logo. The martial strength of the Republican Theme resounds to support the roll of the opening credits, empowered forthrightly by strings dramatico. At 0:35 we flow into the yearning Love Theme on sumptuous strings romantico. At 1:08 martial drums support the display of “From the celebrated novel by Ernest Hemmingway” At 1:27 horns bravura resounds and usher in Castilian auras joined by a flute orientali and Spanish guitar. At 1:46 fanfare dramatico resound joined by strings grave and tolling bells as narrative script displays;

“Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankinde; and therefore, never send to know For Whom The Bell Tolls, It tolls for thee”.

“Spain 1937” displays on the screen. At 2:10 we enter the film proper in Roberto and Kashkin Blow Up A Train” as we see Roberto and Kashkin silhouetted against the fiery skies of nightfall. Young sow a rising tide of tension as we see a locomotive driven my churning strings approaching. They hold a detonator and strings furioso with horn counters rise at 2:43 as the train drives towards the bomb site. An explosion of horns at 2:57 supports the destruction of the train, with an accelerando on flight music propelling their flight as nationalist troops pursue and shoot to kill. At 3:22 in “Kashkin Falls” horns of distress support Kashkin being mortally wounded and his demand that Roberto fulfill his word, which he does by shooting two shots to save him from torture. We conclude with strings furioso propelling Roberto’s escape, crowned with trumpets trionfali resounding with the Republican anthem as a victory declaration. In “Roberto and General Gotz” Roberto enters a festive café supported by a source song sung by vibrant female singer. The crowd flee as a plane bombs the area causing ceiling damage and loss of lighting. In the aftermath Roberto meets General Golz who informs him of a bridge attack, that will launch a Republican offensive. The music for this scene is not on the album.

“Roberto And Anselmo Climb To The Cave” reveals Anselmo and Roberto surveying the bridge, which always posts guards at each end. Young drapes us in traditional Castilian auras borne by woodwinds, which emote a danza gentile as we see the two men climbing. At 0:57 we segue into “Pablo” atop ominous horns as Roberto meets the gruff guerilla commander Pablo. When Roberto informs him that he is on a mission ordered by General Golz, Pablo declares “In these mountains, I command”. We segue at 1:07 atop festive music with trumpeting flare, trilling woodwinds and tambourine into a score highlight, “Rafael, The Gypsy” as we are introduced the colorful gypsy. At 2:03 we segue into the Love Theme as Maria descends from the cave with food. Roberto is captivated by her beauty and cannot take his eyes off her. As they sit together and talk, we are graced by an exquisite extended rendering of their theme by sumptuous strings romantico. At 2:34 the music becomes more animated as Rafael and Anselmo tease her, relating that she showed up with a shaved head. At 3:11 intimacy returns as Maria inquiries into Roberto’s past, supported by a return of the Love Theme. At 4:37 we segue atop angry guitar strums into “Pablo’s Jealousy” as he storms off with the wine full of jealousy. Guitar romantico and strings rejoin in creating a magic moment as we see stirrings of love in Roberto and Maria’s eyes.

“Pilar” offers another score highlight where Young composes as though Spanish blood flowed in his veins. It reveals Roberto’s introduction to Pablo’s tempestuous woman. Her gentle theme, which is tinged with sadness is carried by classical Spanish guitar, belies her tough, gruff outward appearance, instead revealing insight into her vulnerability. At 1:33 we flow into “Pilar Sees Death In Roberto’s Palm” atop a dark chord as she reads his hand, and sees death, refusing to disclose this finding to Roberto. At 3:03 sumptuous strings carry Roberto on a reconnoiter to again map the bridge, which stands impressively over a gorge. Young provides romanticism adorned with Castilian auras, which features some of the score’s finest writing.

The following four cues are not found on the album. “Politics In The Cave” reveals Anselmo and Roberto returning to a less than hospitable reception, which Young supports with a string tremolo agitato. We see a simmering conflict erupt between Roberto and Pablo. When Pablo forbids him to blow the bridge, Roberto refuses to obey. Pilar joins Roberto and secures the loyalty of the other men, fomenting a mutiny where she shames Pablo and removes him as their leader. Young supports the dialogue rich scene by sowing unease with an ambient soundscape of tension. In “Roberto Explains His Cause” soft classical Spanish guitar supports Roberto turning in under the stars. Tremolo strings bring Maria to him and she expresses concern for his safety. Their love for each other is growing and we flow into the Love Theme, which is truncated with sinister music as Pablo exits the cave with his rifle. Robert hides Maria under his blanket and grabs his pistol as Pablo leaves camp. In “Anselmo and Robert” the two men track Pablo; afraid he is going to depart and steal all the horses. What they find is a pathetic display of self-pity as he tries to find solace talking to his horse. Young supports the scene under the dialogue by sowing ambient tension. In “Pilar’s Regrets” she, Maria and Roberto have traveled to find compatriot El Sordo. They find him and solicit his help obtaining more horses so they can flee after blowing-up the bridge. As they rest Pilar recalls the sadness of her life, speaks of her ugliness as a woman, and regrets that she was not born a man. A sad extended string borne rendering of her theme supports the scene. The joining of her words and Young’s music is perfect.

“Maria’s Confession” offers a sublime romantic score highlight. Pilar has left, leaving Roberto and Maria alone. Maria explains how her father and mother were murdered for supporting the Republicans, and how she was abused by the soldiers. Young supports the intimate moment with a sumptuous, yet plaintive romance for strings. Roberto resists intimacy, stands up and moves away, clearly affected by her tale, yet unwilling to succumb to love due to the war. Undaunted, she comes to him at 2:11 carried by a hopeful Love Theme saying “I don’t know how to kiss, or I would kiss you. Always I wonder … where do the noses go?” She tries twice, he resists, yet we see him waver as he can no longer deny his feelings. He pulls her into his embrace and kisses her passionately as the Love Theme blossoms, culminating is a glorious flourish.

The music for the following three scenes is not found on the album. In “Snow” Anselmo returns from his vigil of recording all traffic across the bridge. It has become very cold and their worst fears are realized when a freak May snowstorm hits, as now their horse footprints will be clearly traceable by the nationals when they flee after blowing the bridge. A dark chord sounds as Pilar calls Roberto outside to behold the snowstorm supported by a swirling string agitato. “Dissention in the Cave” reveals Pablo is drunk and resentful of Maria’s affection for Roberto. Dark, menacing, low register strings portend danger as Roberto moves to Pablo to challenge his abusive mouth. In “Robert’s Explanation” he is asked why he fights as a foreigner for Spain. He states that Fascism is on the march and must be opposed, because if not stopped here, it will next challenge England, France and the United States. Young weaves the Republican Theme in unobtrusively to support his speech. As Maria joins, we shift to classical Spanish guitar, with a swelling anger returning with Pablo’s renewed insults. Augustin has had enough and strikes Pablo three times, hoping to precipitate a fight, but instead forces his departure carried by dire portentous strings as he warns that the snows will make it impossible for them to escape. Foreboding strings with harp adornment carry Pablo’s departure, with a palpable lingering anger left in the aftermath. Strings sinistri rise from the well of anger as they all vote to kill Pablo when he returns.

In “Flashback” we have a crucial multi-scenic passage where Young masterfully supports Pilar’s story-telling, regretfully is not found on the album. Pilar asks the men to remember that Pablo is not the man he was when the war broke out, recounting his masterful leadership in routing of the Nationalists and saving their town. Young supports her flashback with an unobtrusive patriotic rendering of the Republican Theme joined by horns dramatico, which resound as we see planted dynamite explode and shatter the walls of the police barracks. He then ruthlessly executes the Nationalist officers who surrendered with Young offering a festive Castilian paean of joy as the townsfolk celebrate their victory. Next, we see the corrupt and traitorous mayor brutally set upon by the crowd, beaten with clubs and his body cast over a bridge onto the rocks below. A swelling of rage by strings irato and retributive horns support the people’s revenge, with a horrific orchestral shriek and descent as he falls to his doom on the rocks below. Next the dashing but egotistical womanizer Don Francisco Rivero exits government house carried by proud Spanish auras and festive strings as the crowd taunts him. Horns of rage erupt as the crowds descend on him building on a crescendo of terror, which climaxes with orchestral violence as he his hoisted and tossed to his doom on the rocks below. Next comes Don Faustino, an old man who is branded a coward. Stirring Castilian strings romantico rise up as his wife cries to join him from her balcony. Yet he too is not spared as he is clubbed mercilessly, supported by a savage string ostinato of death. Horns of doom sound as Pilar collapses from exhaustion realizing that she had seen enough bloodshed, only to relate to Roberto that the worst was yet to come after Pablo opened the doors to government house with the mob poured in to massacre all the remaining prisoners.

The music for the following three scenes is not found on the album. “Pablo Returns” reveals his contrite return with news that the snow has stopped and that he will indeed support his people blow up the bridge. He admits to ease dropping on Pilar’s story and publicly expresses his regrets for all the senseless murders. As Augustin shouts that they are fools to believe him and storms out, music enters on a powerful dire crescendo as we see doubt in Roberto’s eyes. “Intermission” offers a sublime score highlight of exquisite beauty. We are graced by a solo violin romantico with harp adornment playing an exquisite extended rendering of the Love Theme atop kindred tremolo violins draped with Castilian auras. We closed proudly with a trumpet declared Republican Theme anthem. Bravo! In “Discovered” we open with strings of unease as Roberto wakes up outside and spots a soldier riding a horse approach, waving to Maria to hide. He disappears from sight with dire horns slowly swelling as we see the soldier ride up from behind with their backs in clear view. As he spots them and pulls out his rifle a horn propelled crescendo of danger swells as Roberto turns and shoots him before he can fire. Strings furioso support his horse pulling his body down the slope. We end on a diminuendo with Spanish auras as Robert secures the horse and orders Pablo to ride off away from the cave and the other men to cover the tracks below.

Music for the following two scenes is not found on the album. “Maria and Roberto” reveals her begging him to let her join in the fight with him. He refuses and she grabs him and asks for a kiss, to which he resists, yet finally acquiesces before departing, leaving her wanting. Young supports with the yearning Love Theme borne by strings romantico. In “Ambush” Robert and the men lay in ambush with a machine gun as four mounted soldiers’ approach, with Young sowing increasing tension as the get close. They see Pablo’s tracks leading away from the cave and follow them to everyone’s relief. Yet comic woodwinds animato enter as the men look on in horror to see the Gypsy walking in clear view with two rabbits he has killed. Dire horns sound as the soldiers come into the Gypsy’s view, which causes him to slide down a slope with a descent motif carrying him, ending in a plop as he submerges in a snow hole. Dire horns carry the soldiers away and the comic strings return to support the Gypsy’s relief as he runs to Roberto full of joy. Blaring trumpets of alarm resound with a surging anxiety in strings as Primitivo signals a very large force approaching. An ominous bass sustain raises tension as they ride into Roberto’s machine gun’s killing range.

In “El Sordo Retreats” horns of alarm resound, and furious pursuit music is unleashed as rifle shots ring out, a diversion by El Sordo whose men flee up the mountain with a Nationalist force of about 200 in hot pursuit. A diminuendo on tremolo strings supports Roberto using binoculars to identify El Sordo and his men. Young unleashes his orchestra in a fierce torrent empowered by strings furioso as El Sordo flees up a steep mountain slope, but it is too steep and they dismount and start a firefight. They deploy the machine gun and retreat to a high perch. A tense diminuendo enters as Roberto argues against joining EL Sordo in a lost cause, arguing that the bridge is the priority.

Music for the following three scenes id not found on the album. “The Debate” reveals Roberto being joined by a frantic Maria, and Pilar. Pilar supports Roberto against Augustin, saying “What Use Is Courage If You Have No Head? El Sordo Has Both. He’ll Understand.” A string borne dirge with Spanish auras plays under the dialogue, informing us that El Sordo will be left to his fate. “El Sordo Plan” reveals they are completely surrounded by hundreds of troops. The Republican Theme plays as a dirge as the Commander calls for their surrender as plane are on their way. El Sordo contrives a plan, shooting a pistol into the ground five times in a suicide ruse to lure the commander into the open. It works and he angrily walks up the slope hurling insults supported by a rising tension until El Sordo fires, killing him. Tremolo strings cycle for a moment of joy until they hear the droning engines of approaching planes. A descent string furioso carries the three planes diving as the men fire upwards with the machine gun. We close with orchestral mayhem as three bombs annihilate their position. In “Pablo Returns” anxious scurrying strings carry his return to the empty cave as he calls out for Pilar. Dire woodwinds and horns support his opening of Roberto’s cache of dynamite and the trigger box. He places the trigger box into the fire as Roberto and the rest return. He then flees and escapes on horseback before anyone notices the trigger box is missing.

“Maria And Roberto – Their Night Alone” offers a curiously divided cue. It opens darkly with slithering violins sowing tension as Andres reaches the Republican lines with Roberto’s warning for General Golz and has to persuade them not to kill him as a spy. We segue into “Maria’s Confession”, a cue not found on the album. Maria joins Roberto and all pretenses are dropped as she realizes that she could lose him tomorrow. She completes her story of how she had her hair forcibly cut and then was gang raped. He says that no one touched her to which she replies, then you can love me? He replies, he can love her more, and they embrace and kiss. Young supports with a subtle, unobtrusive extended rendering of the Love Theme, which plays under the dialogue. At 0:28 we return to “Maria And Roberto – Their Night Alone” a score highlights as oboe delicato ushers in ethereal auras and a harp glissando as Roberto caresses Maria hair in moonlight, waking her just before sunrise. She again confesses her undying love for him to which he affirms his love for her. They kiss and she makes him promise to come back to her. Young supports with the Love Theme rendered as a beautiful romance for strings, an exquisite performance that achieves a sublime confluence with our lovers.

Music for the following three scenes is not found on the album. “Journey to the Bridge” reveals nationalist troop carriers transporting soldiers over the bridge supported by martial horns and menacing strings. Short phrases of the Republican Theme carry Roberto and Anselmo to the bridge, as the other two teams move stealthily into positions on each shore of the bridge. A tension string tremolo and dire horns support shots of the bridge below. Roberto dispatches Anselmo to take out the sentry supported by a noble rendering of the Republican Theme. Tension returns as we see a cavalry brigade ride across the river near Pablo’s and his men’s position. As Augustin prepares to ambush the two sentries a cavalry unit rides past supported my martial drums, forcing him to hide. A scene change to Republican radio dispatch reveals an urgent attempt to reach General Golz to warn him of the Nationalist ambush. Muted urgent trumpets raise anxiety as they fail to reach him. “The Sun Rises” reveals sunrise, which Young supports with an ascent motif by resplendent tremolo strings, muted horns, harp glissandi, and shimmering metallic auras. Mounting tension supports repeated failed attempts to reach General Golz. Young unleashes a firestorm, whipping his orchestra into frenzy as the two teams attack and a fire fight erupts. This provides cover for Roberto and Anselmo to plant the dynamite and grenade triggers on the bridge support struts. A change of scene to “Maria Alone” reveals her alone and distressed, pleading to heaven for Roberto to return to her safely. The furious action writing is sustained, but muted to not overpower her words.

In “The Bridge Is Blown” offers a tour de force as Young offers the score’s most dynamic action cue, providing both drama and riveting suspense. Dire horns of alarm sound as a tank column approaches. An interlude supports Roberto planting the explosives. A column of tanks suddenly turns the corner and approaches the bridge empowered by drums militare. Young escalates the ferocity of his music as Pablo and his team make a desperate attempt to delay them reaching the bridge, which results in the death of the Gypsy. A stepped crescendo ascent supports Roberto desperately trying to finish wiring the bridge as the tank column approaches. The battle is ferocious and fully matched by the kinetic dynamism of Young’s music as Pilar grenades the resistant guard post after Fernando is killed. A final stunning crescendo dramatico builds and crest powerfully as Roberto barely escapes in time and destroys the bridge.

Music for the following three cues is not found on the album. “Aftermath” offers a weeping violin, which supports Roberto’s sadness in finding Anselmo’s corpse among the wreckage. A trumpet led Republican Theme alight with Spanish auras carries Pilar and the men to Maria and the horses. In “Roberto Returns To Maria” she is relieved, tearful and joyous, running to his welcoming arms. They kiss supported by a passionate statement of the Love Theme. In “Escape” the team rides to escape only to find that nationalist troops and a tank positioned on the opposite side of the destroyed bridge. They are forced to ride exposed across the road to the safety of a ravine, which leads into the forest. One by one they ride the gauntlet of tank shelling and gunfire. Roberto is the last to try and shrill horns of pain resound with horrific force as a tank shell explodes and takes him down, with the horse’s weight shattering his leg.

“Roberto, Alone, Awaits Death” offers a heart-wrenching score highlight where Young’s music reaches its emotional apogee. Roberto realizes that he is doomed and resolves to remain with a machine gun to delay the troops crossing the river. We see in his eyes that it breaks his heart, and he understands that he must find a way to convince Maria to leave and live. The dialogue achieves a sublime cinematic confluence with Young’s music, which offers a molto tragico rendering of the Love Theme full of heart ache and regret. Pilar and the men ride off with the distraught Maria and we see Roberto reconciled to his fate. At 5:16 drum militare support the approach of Nationalist troops and the scene ends with Roberto firing his machine gun into the camera and disappearing in a cloud of smoke. A tolling bell closes the film and ushers in a dramatic horn declared end of the film with a flourish.

I am appreciative of Robert Townson and Varese Sarabande for this release of Victor Young’s masterpiece, “For Whom The Bell Tolls”. The mastering of this 1958 recording provides a good listening experience, but I believe the 39 minutes of score provided just does not do justice to what I believe may be Young’s Magnum Opus. Well over an hour of score is not included, including many passages of exquisite beauty. I sincerely hope that a label takes on the project of bringing the complete score to the market as this is a score for the ages. Folks, what is so remarkable is that Young composed as though Spanish blood flowed through his veins, masterfully carrying on the traditions of composers Albéniz, Granados and de Falla. Three themes empower the film’s narrative with the Republican Theme displaying strength, nobility and forthrightness, emblematic of our heroes. The yearning love theme I believe may be the finest in Young’s canon. Its expression in the cues “Maria’s Confession”, “Intermission” and “Maria And Roberto – Their Night Alone” is exquisite, supremely romantic, and at times, transcendent, a testament of Young’s brilliance. In scene after scene Young’s music empowers Wood’s story-telling, repeatedly achieving cinematic confluences of rare, stirring, and exquisite beauty. I believe this score to be one of the greatest of the 20th century and a testament to Victor Young’s mastery of his craft. I highly recommend you add this score to your collection, and until a complete score is recorded, watch the film itself to experience the full breath, the genius of what Victor Young has accomplished.

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to an eight-minute suite: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZFkaLvkXVk

Buy the For Whom the Bell Tolls soundtrack from the Movie Music UK Store

Track Listing:

  • Main Title/Roberto and Kashkin Blow Up A Train/Kashkin Falls (3:46)
  • Roberto And Anselmo Climb to The Cave/Pablo: “In These Mountains, I Command!”/Rafael, The Gypsy/Pablo’s Jealousy/Roberto and Maria: “This Is A Very Strange Woman, Roberto. She Is Of No One!” (5:41)
  • Pilar: “She Has A Tongue … It Bites Like A Bullwhip!”/Pilar Sees Death In Roberto’s Palm (4:27)
  • Politics In The Cave/Roberto Explains His Cause/Maria Warns Roberto About Pablo: “If He Pretends To Be Friendly, It Means He Has Made A Decision.” (3:19)
  • Maria’s Confession/Roberto’s Kiss/Maria: “I Don’t Know How To Kiss, Or I’d Kiss You Always I Wonder … Where Do The Noses Go?” (3:12)
  • Maria: “In The Evenings, We’ll Make Love” (3:01)
  • El Sordo Retreats/Pilar: “What Use Is Courage If You Have No Head? El Sordo Has Both. He’ll Understand” (2:25)
  • Maria and Roberto – Their Night Alone: “All The Things You Have Told Me Tonight. It’s As If You’ve Already Taken Me To America” (3:48)
  • The Sun Rises/Maria Alone/The Bridge Is Blown (4:17)
  • Roberto Returns To Maria/Roberto, Alone, Awaits Death/Roberto Sends Maria Away With Pilar: “We’ll Go To America Another Time.”/End Title (5:54)

Running Time: 39 minutes 50 seconds

Varese Sarabande VCL-1114-1153 (1943/2014)

Music composed by Victor Young. Conducted by Ray Heindorf. Orchestrations by George Parrish and Leo Shuken. Recorded and mixed by M. A. Merrick. Score produced by Victor Young. Album produced by Robert Townson.

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