Home > Reviews > HOW GREEN WAS MY VALLEY – Alfred Newman

HOW GREEN WAS MY VALLEY – Alfred Newman

MOVIE MUSIC UK CLASSICS

Original Review by Craig Lysy

20th Century studio executive Darryl F. Zanuck was seeking an epic film in the vein of Gone With The Wind, and believed he had at last found his answer in Richard Llewellyn’s popular 1939 novel How Green Was My Valley. He purchased the screen rights and tasked William Wyler to direct with an $800,000 budget. Wyler was shortly thereafter replaced by John Ford who wanted to shoot the film live in Wales, but was overruled by the studio as the raging Nazi Blitz and the Battle of Britain made it too dangerous. A set was constructed in Malibu and the film shot in black and white as the indigenous California flowers were different colors that the Welsh flowers. A fine cast was hired, including Walter Pidgeon as Pastor Gruffydd, Maureen O’Hara as Angharad Morgan, Donald Crisp as Gwilym Morgan, Roddy McDowall in his acting debut as Huw Morgan, Sara Allgood as Beth Morgan, Patric Knowles as Ivor Morgan, John Loder as Lanto Morgan, Richard Fraser as Davy Morgan, Evan Evans as Gwilym Morgan Jr., James Monks as Owen Morgan, Anna Lee as Ivor’s wife Bronwyn, and Irving Pichel as an adult Huw Morgan, who narrates the film.

The story is set in a Welsh town in South Wales during the reign of Queen Victoria and seen through the eyes of Huw, youngest son of Gwilym and Beth Morgan. He is academically gifted, which offers him opportunity to find a better and safer life than being a coal miner. The town offers an idyllic setting with the townsfolk happy and bonded like family. All this is shattered when the local mine owner reduces wages and the men of the village go on strike, a bitter strike that divides not only the town, but the Morgan family. Over time everyone Huw has ever know either dies in a mining accident, or moves away seeking greener pastures. Eventually Huw sees his beloved town decimated by death and contaminated by the mine’s waste and decides it best that he too set out to find his fortune. The film was a commercial success earning $2.4 million or three times its production costs. Its critical success was universal with many critics believing it to be John Ford’s directorial masterpiece. It earned an astounding ten Academy Award nominations for Best Film Editing, Best Recorded Sound, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Film Score, Best Supporting Actress, winning Best Picture, Best Director, Best Cinematography, Best Art Direction and Best Supporting Actor.

John Ford had collaborated with Alfred Newman over ten years on eight prior films and he as 20th Century Fox’s Music Director was the natural choice for composer. After reading the screenplay Newman understood that he would need to infuse his soundscape with Welsh folk songs to establish time and setting. To that end his staff researched and assembled for him a significant bounty of traditional folk songs and religious hymns. Newman not only wove these songs into the score, but interpolated a number of their melodies as thematic constructs. This was a daunting challenge as the songs and hymns used in the film are sung in Welsh, which forced Newman to pretty much recruit every Welsh singer on the west coast!

His soundscape is supported by three primary themes; The Morgan Family Theme serves as the score’s main theme and represents patriarch Gwilym Morgan, and by extension, his family. High register violins joined by angelic wordless women’s chorus grace us with a long-lined melody, which emotes with the flowing sensibilities of a dance, abounding with happiness. It perfectly captures the idyllic life of the beloved green valley and close-knit family. As times darken, so too does the themes articulation, but always a kernel of hope remains. The second primary theme is Huw’s Theme, a wistful melody, full of nostalgia, which is borne usually by cello, although kindred strings and at time woodwinds also bear his melody. The story is seen through his eyes and narrated by him as an adult recalling the happy and cherished times of his youth, and this sensibility is found in the notes. The last primary theme is the Love Theme. Newman interpolated the melody from the traditional Irish folk song “The Six Pence”. It is string borne with harp adornment, yet there is sadness in the notes as Angharad’s love for the Pastor is unrequited. Lastly, once again it goes without saying that Newman’s legendary rubato writing for strings is again on full display.

“Twentieth Century Fox Fanfare” offers Newman’s iconic fanfare for the studio. “Main Title” offers a score highlight where Newman masterfully infuses nostalgia and sets the tone of the film. We observe on screen the page turning of the opening credits. Newman supports with men’s chorus singing “Men of Harlech”, a rousing patriotic Welsh song, which speaks to Welsh heroism in defying the English siege of Harlech Castle 1461 – 1468 C.E. At 0:49 we segue into the film proper atop tolling bells as we hear Huw as narrator speak of the cherished belongings, he is packing to take with him. He is departing after fifty years and his narrative is wistful as he recounts the days of his youth, all the people he loved, and how green and verdant was his beloved valley. Newman supports with Huw’s Theme borne by warm cello nobile joined by plaintive horns. At 1:32 the music brightens as we see cherished images of his youth spoken with fondness. The music darkens, joined by tolling bells as we see the grim deserted town as Huw speaks; “So I can close my eyes on my valley as it is today, and it is gone”. At 1:52 the resplendent Morgan Family Theme enters on violins joined by angelic wordless female chorus as Huw states; “And I see it as it was when I was a boy”. He speaks of his love for his father who taught him well. We close on solo flute tenero as his beloved sister Angharad calls to him. “Men Coming Home From The Mines” reveals the men being paid and all walking home down the main street singing a capella “Cwm Rhondda” (1907), music by John Hughes, lyrics by William Williams. The song is hopeful and offers praise and thanks Almighty God. As the Morgan men enter the path to their home, mother Morgan extends her apron, and one by one they deposit their money. This song is not found on the album.

We segue into “The Family and Bronwen” which offers a wonderful extended exposition of the Morgan Family Theme. Huw’s narration relates how all the men went to the back yard to bathe and wash off the coal dust before sitting for dinner. Newman supports with a warm and sentimental rendering of the Morgan Family Theme by violins allegri and female chorus. At 0:41 the theme shifts to an allegro rendering abounding with familial happiness. At 1:01 the music becomes solemn as the family sits down to supper. A comic interlude at 1:21 supports Huw sheepishly returning bread he grabbed before Grace is said. Their theme continues to flow with familial warmth as we see father cutting the roast and each son salivating for their piece. At 2:01 the B Phrase of the theme enters as Huw praises his father as the head of the house, with his mother, its heart. After dinner they assemble as the family bank is opened and each son is given his allowance. A comic interlude at 2:31 supports Owen tweaking Angharad’s pony tail. At 2:54 the theme becomes playful as Huw seeks out his allowance and his father rewards him, much to his delight. His theme’s childlike energy carries him out the house until 3:10, when horns riverenziali sound causing him to pause and bow respectfully as he passes the town chapel. The playful music borne by strings animato and bubbling woodwinds carries him to Mrs. Tosall’s shop where he buys some toffee. At 3:49 he meets Bronwen, the fiancé to his older brother Ivor, who is making a social call. Angelic harp glissandi, shimmering violins and woodwind gentile support their introduction. She is introduced to his mom and we see that the lad is smitten. At 4:11 violins introduce a romantic rendering of Huw’s Theme, which speaks to his infatuation. We transition to the Morgan Family Theme on violins at 4:32 as Gwilym brings Ivor in, and then the others brothers join, and bow respectfully. At 4:54 the melody transfer to solo flute delicato is gorgeous, and supports Gwilym sending Huw on his way as this is adult business. The music from 5:19 – 6:33 is attached to footage edited out of the film, which features the theme shifted from violins, to warm horns and finally to woodwinds tenero.

The following two scenes offer source music not found on the album. “The Wedding” reveals Ivor and Gwilym standing at the altar. The townsfolk begin singing a Capella a reprise of the reverential song “Calon Lan”, music by John Hughes, lyrics by Daniel James, which support Bronwyn’s walk to the altar. The new preacher Pastor Gruffydd performs the marriage rite and we shift scenes to outside the chapel where the men form human chains on each edge of the stairs. They sing the traditional and festive Welsh folk song “Llwyn Onn” as the happy couple exit and descend the stairs, showered by rice. In “Wedding Reception” the townsfolk sing the traditional Welsh folk song “Hob I Deri Dando” as the wedding cake is brought in. The men and women separate into separate quarters, and we see an inebriated Gwilym singing the traditional and humorous Welsh drinking song “Peter O’Pea”. After Pastor Gruffydd joins the men for a drink, the guests break out and sing the festive, traditional Welsh folk song “Mochyn Du”. The Pastor and Angharad take up the melody in duet and we see in their eyes, a mutual nascent attraction.

“The Strike” reveals a written notice from the mine owners that it was cutting wages by 1 Shilling, 2 Pence for all workers. A descending statement from dire horns and grieving strings support the sign’s message. A statement of the Morgan Family Theme by French horns nobile supports Gwilym reassuring the men that he and the senior workers will meet with management and that everyone should get to work. Yet the statement ends darkly at 0:48, which portends trouble. The music pauses here. Upon returning home he advises the family that the drop in the price of coal caused the pay cut, but Lanto counters that the Dowlais steel mill closed and their men have come and offered to work for lower wages just to get work. They argue that more cuts are coming, which Gwilym refuses to accept, believing the mine owner an honorable man. When the sons propose forming a union, Gwilym is disdainful that they would support socialist nonsense and gruffly departs. At dinner an argument breaks out, which shatters the household as all five adult sons challenge their father and leave the house to find lodging in town. The music resumes the next day at 0:49 on a dark sustain as we learn the men are returning home early as they have gone on strike. At 0:57 a plaintive rendering of the Huw’s Theme supports him asking the Pastor what does it mean, to which he answers that something has gone out of the valley that may never return. At 1:12 a solo oboe triste renders the Morgan Family Theme as the wayward sons walk past their mother and sister. At 1:32 an extended exposition of a grieving Morgan Family Theme enters as narration informs us that after 22 weeks of striking, a harsh winter had come and the starving strikers have turned against Gwilym, who they believe is a traitor, throwing a rock threw his window. Trumpets nobile sound at 2:26 as the Morgan sons pummel the man who threw the rock. We close with a beleaguered rendering of their theme as despair sets in. At 3:01 we segue into “Mother And Huw In Broken Ice”, a score highlight, which features Newman’s most impassioned writing of the film. We hear Huw’s Theme carried by flute delicato as his Mom orders him to take her to the strike meeting tonight so she may defend her husband. She gives a fiery speech defending her man and then departs with Huw in a blizzard carried by a beleaguered Family Theme. She falls through the ice, as does Huw who tries to rescue her. The frigid waters pose certain death, but by the grace of God they are saved by the boys, which Newman supports at 3:40 with a swelling and impassioned molto tragico rendering of the Family Theme.

“Treasure Island” reveals the Pastor comforting Huw who is despondent having heard from Dr. Richards that he may never walk again. He tells him to have faith and leaves him the book Treasure Island to read. Newman supports with a sentimental string borne rendering of Huw’s Theme. Horns religioso sound as Angharad joins the Pastor outside, thank him and asking him to come for dinner. Newman introduces his Love Theme on solo flute delicato with harp adornment as we see. After his departure and her return to the house the transfer to solo violin and then kindred violins offers a wondrous exposition, as we see she has fallen in love. The heartwarming Family Theme enters at 1:37 as we see classic of literature that are read to Huw to foster his recovery. We return to a tender Huw’s Theme at 1:58 as we see his mom upstairs recuperating and how the two communicate by tapping the walls with poles. At 2:13 we flow into “The Spring Birds”, a wondrous score highlight, atop woodwinds giocosi, which usher in a heartwarming and hopeful iteration of the Family theme as the first bird of springs flies in and lands on his window shelf. A second bird joins and we see Huw’s say “Spring” and smile with happiness. As his mom comes down the stairs for the first time the Family Theme and Huw’s Theme on cello tenero entwine in wondrous interplay as we see joy on both their faces.

“Towns Folk Serenade Mrs. Morgan” reveals the towns folk coming to the Morgan house to serenade Mrs. Morgan with the traditional Welsh song “Mentra Gwen”, which speaks of hope. She has a pity moment as she has not been able to care for her family. Her sons then led the crowd in singing another Welsh folk song “Myfanwy-Arabella” (1875) by Joseph Parry, which speaks of belonging and the promise of better times. We conclude with a heartfelt rendering of the Family Theme led by a solo oboe tenero, which launches into a celebratory jig as she invites the crowd in for dinner. This music supporting this scene is not on the album. In “Angharad And Mister Gruffydd” we are graced by an extended rendering of the Love Theme. The crowd has departed leaving the Pastor and Angharad alone together. She thanks him for bring the Morgan Family back together by backing the union, and Newman supports with the Love Theme borne by flute delicato with harp adornment. After he burns his hand lifting a pot off the fire, she cradles his hand and their theme blossoms on strings. She compliments him and he returns the favor, before realizing that he perhaps has been too forward. He departs in some discomfort as she gazes lovingly out her window.

“Two Brothers Leave” reveals that the strike is over, but there are no longer enough jobs for every man. It is the same throughout Wales so Owen and young Gwilym Jr. ask father for their share of the box as they are going to America to seek their fortune. A gorgeous plaintive rendering of the Family Theme with flute and strings playing in counterpoint support Beth learning that two of her sons are leaving, realizing that she will not see them again. As she hugs “her babies” the theme brightens with maternal love as Gwilym asks the family to join him in a Bible read from Isiah 55. The music becomes pensive when she contemplates all of her sons leaving. “Command From The Queen” opens with a gig (not on the album) as the townsfolk rush to the Morgan house with a courier. He announces he has a letter from Windsor Castle for Mr. Ivor Morgan and we open with harp that ushers in a stinger as Mrs. Morgan pushes Ivor forward out of his stupor. The Family Theme joins as he accepts the letter. At 0:25 horns reale and strings solenne support the opening of the letter and usher in a phrase of “God Save the Queen” (1744), music and lyrics by Henry Carey as the letter commands him and his choir to appear for a performance 14 May. A celebratory rendering of the Family Theme as Gwilym takes pride in the invitation and announces a party for the town. We close on a plaintive statement of the Family Theme when he declares that Owen and Gwilym Jr. will have a proper send-off, before sadly realizing that he will never see either of them again.

“Owen and Gwilym Jr. Depart” reveals the Pastor leading the choir in singing “God Save the Queen”, in preparation for their trip to Windsor Castle, as we see the two brothers depart unseen for America. “Huw Walks Among The Daffodils” offers a score highlight with a beautiful exposition of Huw’s Theme. The Pastor comes calling to take Huw up into the meadows to revel in the daffodil blossoms. A tender rendering of Huw’s Theme by warm sumptuous strings with woodwind adornment supports their progress as he carries Huw on his shoulders. At 0:42 the music become tentative as he sets the lad down, walks ten feet away and then exhorts him to walk to him. At 1:18 horns solenne support Huw who succeeds and reaches the Pastor. A heartfelt rendering of his theme draped with religioso auras support the bonding and the Pastor’s encouragement to again partake of life. “The Sermon” reveals Huw walking gingerly to Sunday sermon. The Pastor stands at the pulpit and the congregation sings “Penpark”, a traditional Welsh hymn, music by J.T. Rees, lyrics by Charles Wesley. The music for this scene is not on the album. In “Angharad With The Minister” deacon Parry publicly accuses Meillyn Lewis of having a child out of wedlock and cruelly casts her out of church. Angharad protests and mocks the deacon shouting “And Jesus said go and sin no more”! The Pastor follows her and they have a spirited conversation about faith, life and love. A plaintive and aching rendering of the Love Theme supports her departure and the aftermath with the Pastor.

“Love Denied” offers a score highlight, which features an extended rendering of the Love Them. Angharad waits for the Pastor to return home and all pretenses are dropped between them. The Love Theme enters on flute tenero with harp adornment, shifts to clarinet and harp, and then to solo violin for an exquisite presentation. At 1:37 the music becomes pleading as she professes her love. Yet at 1:57 the music becomes draped in religioso auras as he defers, stating that on a preacher’s wage, he could never support her or a family on his own, having to rely on the charity of others for a hard, toiling life. She kisses him, yet he does not respond in kind, as the theme shifts to an oboe of despair. She departs with an aching sadness, now reconciled to living a comfortable life in a loveless marriage to the cold, smug but wealthy coal magnate Lestyn Evans. “Angharad’s Wedding” reveals her marriage to Lestyn Evans to tolling church bells. As the newlywed couple exit the church, a men’s choir at the behest of Gwilym, sing the Welsh folk song “Cwm Rhondda”. The music for this scene is not found on the album.

“School” reveals Huw’s first day at school. As he enters the classroom a tentative, and uncertain rendering of his theme supports his progress. He is mocked by the teacher for his humble origins and appearance. After school a much larger boy bullies him, and although Huw fights back, he is no match and is knocked out. The fight is unscored. “Huw’s Lesson” reveals that the boxing lessons arranged by his father worked as he easy dispatches the school bully. Yet this arouses the ire of his teacher who canes him mercilessly. He comes home supported by a beleaguered rendering of his theme and convinces his brothers to not avenge him against the teacher, which earns their respect. At 1:19 we segue into “The Mine Tragedy” with a repeating stepped descent by dire horns offset by grieving strings, which portend doom as sirens sound alerting the town to a mine accident. Men’s chorus singing the traditional Welsh hymn “Llef” by Griffith Hugh Jones accompany the orchestra, though the hymn is not on the album. Strings and horns join in a painful dirge-like iteration, as Gwilym and the Pastor walk down to a waiting Bronwen. She is devastated and at 1:57 a wail by strings sofferenti support her scream out in agony “Ivor”! The music after 2:10 is evidently attached to an edited scene. It writhes in pain atop grievous horns, concluding with a descending diminuendo of devastation by violins affanato.

“Huw’s Fateful Choice” reveals Huw is an honor student and has secured a scholarship. Gwilym desires that he goes to university, but Huw insists on joining him and his brothers in the mine. Gwilym is deeply disappointed and leaves to get drunk. Huw then moves in with Bronwen, who he has always loved. The next day he marches to the mine with the men, which is supported by the traditional Welsh hymn “Bryn Calfaria”, music by William Owen, lyrics by William Williams. At the end of the shift, he is paid a pittance while his brothers Lanto and Davy are discharged as they are deemed too expensive to employ. A string descent of despair accompanies Gwilym’s sadness of the news. The music for these scenes is not on the album. “Two More Brothers Leave” reveals Lanto and Davy leaving to seek their fortune elsewhere and ask Gwilym to read a bible passage. As he recites Psalm 23, verse 5, Newman supports with an aching Family theme born by oboe triste with strings playing in counterpoint. At 0:35 violins of hope emote Huw’s Theme as we see the two brothers walk away to their destiny. An oboe takes up the melody with a contrapuntal viola as Huw shows his parents on a world map where the boys have gone. We close at 1:21 on a diminuendo of sadness as we see the boys are missed.

In “The House on The Hill” Huw goes to visit his sister Angharad who has left her husband and returned from Cape Town to reside in the Evans estate. A tender Huw’s Theme supports the reunion. The Family Theme enters on oboe at 0:51 as they catch up. At 1:14 the Love Theme joins when Huw brings up the Pastor and relates that he seems sad, like her, which upsets her, causing her to say he must leave. But she relents and the Family Theme enters at 1:44 as she cries that she tried to tell mother, causing him to hug and comfort her. She asks Huw to remain as Mrs. Nichols brings in the tea service. At 2:47 discord enters on bassoon as Angharad insists to Mrs. Nichols that she will pour her own tea. The music warms on the Family Theme as Huw and Angharad enjoy their time together. At 3:56 we segue darkly into “Gossip” where we see Mrs. Nichols spreading hateful rumors to the house staff that Angharad has left her husband, plans to divorce him and then marry the Pastor. Newman supports her ill-will with a grim and foreboding tapestry of malevolence. This malignancy of this malevolent construct travels with Huw home as women snicker behind his back. His parents are both saddened and devastated by the news. The music brightens at 5:30 as Gwilym praises his son for fighting in the mine to defend his sister’s honor. We conclude with a plaintive rendering of Huw’s Theme as he decides to go to the church meeting to defend his sister’s honor.

“Church Meeting” reveals the deacons, Pastor and townsfolk assembled and signing the traditional Welsh hymn “Llef”. The Pastor gives an impassioned speech, which rebukes the deacons and people for their moral cowardice and hypocrisy, informing them that he this will be his last speech in this town. He then departs followed by Huw. The music for this scene is not on the album. In “Goodbyes” Huw joins the Pastor supported by a tender rendering of his theme. He gifts the lad his father’s pocket watch and says he will always remember him. The Love Theme enters on strings at 0:56 as Huw asks if he can see Angharad one last time, but the Pastor declines saying if he did, he would not have the strength to leave. We conclude with the melody bittersweet as the two prepare to part ways. “Mine Explosions” commences with alarm sirens at the mine followed by fiery explosions. The Pastor and Huw travel to the mine together and once there the Pastor calls for men to join him and Huw on a rescue mission as Gwilym is among the missing men. As they descend Angharad bids the Pastor a loving farewell as we hear a mixed chorus sing the traditional Welsh song “Cwm Rhondda” as a dirge. The music for this scene is not on the album. “Huw Finds His Father” reveals him finding his “Dada” pinned and being crushed by a massive wooden beam. Huw lowers himself into his father’s welcoming arms supported by a loving expression of his theme. Gwilym dies at that moment of reunion, marked by a tragic chord of heartbreak. At 0:13 by a beautiful ethereal rendering of the Family Theme ascends with angelic female choir and shimmering violins to commemorate the passing of a great man. Beth, Bronwen and Angharad all feel his passing in a very moving commentary. We flow into “Finale” a score highlight where a stirring cinematic confluence is achieved. We open with a choral lament, which offers the traditional Welsh hymn “Llef”. The men arrive on the lift, and we see Huw cradling his beloved father in his arms. Music and spoken word join in wondrous communion as we hear Huw as narrator speak;

“Men like my father cannot die. They are with me still. Real in memory as they were in flesh, loving and beloved forever. How green was my valley then.”

At 1:08 there is a film-album incongruity. In the film the “Llef” hymn reprises with a joyous choral rendering, while on the album the Family Theme is reprised. I believe both versions work, so, continuing on with my review; the music brightens and we are graced with a montage of the Morgan family’s life. We see images cherished by Huw, that will live on forever, fond memories of days when his valley was green. As the music resounds, we see the family happily dining together, the day Bronwen arrived to a smitten Huw, Angharad smiling in happier times, Huw walking for the first time with the Pastor among resplendent fields of daffodils, and lastly, he walking hand in hand with his father from Sunday services as his brothers join amidst the verdant windswept green valley of home. The film concludes with a most satisfying and joyous flourish. Bravo!

I wish to thank Nick Redman and his technical team for restoring and issuing “How Green Was My Valley”, a masterpiece by Alfred Newman long-sought by lovers of the art form. The digital mastering of the original source tapes was largely successful with only a few small moments of audio imperfection. Newman received an Academy Award nomination for this score, eventually losing to “All That Money Can Buy” by Bernard Herrmann. The score offers a testament to his compositional gift and mastery of his craft. His decision to infuse his soundscape with traditional Welsh folk songs and hymns, sung in Welsh was well conceived and executed. Indeed, I believe it contributed more to establishing the setting in Wales than the town constructed in the Malibu mountains. His three primary themes brought the valley, townsfolk and Morgan Family to life, and I believe are largely responsible for John Ford realizing his directorial masterpiece. This is a score felt deeply, often achieving a stirring confluence with Huw’s narration and Arthur C. Miller’s cinematography. It leaves a lasting impression long after the film has finished. I believe this score to be one of the finest in Alfred Newman’s canon and precious gem of the Golden Age. I highly recommend you purchase this wondrous album for your collection, as well as watching the Ford-Newman collaboration work his magic during the film.

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to “The Family and Bronwen cue: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8qH1TWEJ08

Buy the How Green Was My Valley soundtrack from the Movie Music UK Store

Track Listing:

  • Twentieth Century Fox Fanfare (0:12)
  • Main Title/Huw’s Theme (2:50)
  • The Family and Bronwen (6:30)
  • The Strike/Mother and Huw in Broken Ice (4:42)
  • Treasure Island/The Spring Birds (3:51)
  • Angharad and Mister Gruffydd (2:08)
  • Command From The Queen (1:50)
  • Huw Walks Among the Daffodils (3:29)
  • Angharad With the Minister (1:06)
  • Love Denied (4:11)
  • School (1:35)
  • Huw’s Lesson/The Mine Tragedy (3:06)
  • Two More Brothers Leave (1:52)
  • The House on The Hill/Gossip (6:57)
  • Goodbyes (1:31)
  • Huw Finds His Father (0:53)
  • Finale/End Title (1:42)

Running Time: 48 minutes 25 seconds

TCF Film Scores 07822-110008-2 (1941/1993)

Music composed and conducted by Alfred Newman. Orchestrations by Hugo Friedhofer and Edward B. Powell. Score produced by Alfred Newman. Album produced by Nick Redman.

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