Home > Greatest Scores of the Twentieth Century, Reviews > THE PRISONER OF ZENDA – Alfred Newman and Conrad Salinger

THE PRISONER OF ZENDA – Alfred Newman and Conrad Salinger


Original Review by Craig Lysy

With the onset of a new decade, MGM studio executives embarked on an ambitious plan to remake several popular black and white films in color. To that end, in 1951 they announced that they had purchased the film rights of “The Prisoner of Zenda” (1937) from David O. Selznick for $225,000. A creative decision was to use many of the same production elements as the 1937 film, including; the identical script, camera angles, setting and musical score. Pandro S. Berman was assigned production and provided a $1.708 million budget. Richard Thorpe was tasked with directing, and a stellar cast was assembled, which included; Stewart Granger as Rudolph Rassendyll, Deborah Kerr as Princess Flavia, James Mason as Rupert of Hentzau, Louis Calhern as Colonel Zapt, Robert Douglas as Michael, Duke of Strelsau, Jane Greer as Antionette de Mauban and Robert Coote as Fritz von Tarlenheim.

The story is set in the mythical Balkan kingdom of Ruritania in 1897 C.E. An English gentleman, Rudolf Rassendyll, is vacationing in Ruritania when a chance meeting leads to the discovery that he doppelgänger for crown Prince Rudolph, to whom he is related. Well, palace intrigue results in the Crown Prince being found drugged and unable to attend the ceremony, with his covetous half-brother Duke Michael intent on usurping the throne by becoming regent. Colonel Zapt convinces Rassendyll to impersonate Rudolf V for the coronation, and then later to step aside when the Crown Prince regains consciousness. In the interim, complications arise when Rudolph’s intended wife, Princess Favia who dislikes him, falls in love with the much more amiable Rassendyll imposter, and the Crown Prince is kidnapped by Duke Michael’s henchmen. Eventually after much intrigue and sword fighting the rightful king is restored to the throne and Rassendyll departs without Flavia who is broken-hearted, but nobly chooses to fulfill her family obligations and marry the king. The film was a commercial success, earning a profit of $1.8 million. Critical reception was mixed, and it received no Academy Award nominations.

Alfred Newman composed the score for the 1937 film, and MGM decided to reuse it, along with the other film elements for their remake. Unfortunately, Newman was now Director of Music at 20th Century Fox and unavailable to adapt his music. As such the production team made the decision to task Conrad Salinger, a composer, arranger, and orchestrator with adapting Newman’s score.

Salinger understood that he had excellent music to work with from the now legendary composer. His approach was to present Newman’s themes in a more prominent and dynamic way than the original through the use of improved recording techniques. For the soundscape Newman had created a multiplicity of themes, including; Fanfare for the King and Royal Court is offered by traditional horns reale. It is utilized often in the film, especially for important ceremonial occasions, assuming a more militant and dramatic expression during the final battle. The Ruritania Theme offers a noble national anthem abounding with pride and patriotism. It is often paired with the Royal Fanfare, achieving a powerful synergy. Rassendyll’s Theme supports our hero and offers a confident expression carried forthrightly by strings and woodwinds and empowered by horns bravura. The theme is quite versatile, with a multiplicity of iterations ranging from formal 18th century English gentility, to heroic valor, and dynamic action. The Rassendyll and Flavia Love Theme emotes with classic Golden Age romanticism. It is offered as a romance for strings d’amore, which I believe to be one of Newman’s most ardent, achieving its most impassioned iteration in the finale. Antoinette’s Theme supports the sad lover of Prince Michael. Her theme, while offered as a valzer elegante, is tinged with sadness as her love for Michael is unrequited. For our two villains, the would-be usurper Prince Michael is supported by a malignant, minor modal corruption of the bright major modal Royal Fanfare, which perfectly speaks to his evil nature. Rupert’s Theme supports this ruthless villain and is emoted by horns sinistre, which speak to his treacherous, nefarious and unscrupulous nature. Lastly, Newman interpolated a number of classical pieces to support the culture and ambiance of the royal Ruritanian court.

“Main Title” offers a score highlight where Newman/Salinger masterfully set the tone of the film. It opens grandly with resounding fanfare reale as the MGM Studio logo, and then the film title displays. A swirling string accelerando joins the fanfare to usher in at 0:15 the page turning opening credits supported by a bold statement of Rassendyll’s Theme. At 0:36 the fanfare Reale of the royal court reprises and heralds the unfoldment at 0:43 of the Rassendyll and Flavia Love Theme. At 1:13 fanfare reale support producer Pedro S. Berman’s and director Richard Thorpe’s credits. At 1:21 a gentile offering of Rassendyll’s Theme supports script narration, which sets the stage for a royal scandal with the usual disclaimer. At 1:50 enter the film proper atop churning strings and horns bravura as we see a train driving through the European countryside with a map of late 19th century Europe seen in the background.

“Rassendyll’s Walk” reveals English tourist Rudolf Rassendyll arriving in Ruritania for a holiday fishing trip. He exits the train and stuns officers at the passport check with his uncanny resemblance to Crown Prince Rudolph. As he departs for a walk to his hotel a pleasant strolling rendering of his theme supports. At 0:07 fanfare reale resounds as we see a poster announcing the coronation of Rudolph V as king of Ruritania. A gentile string borne, strolling rendering of the Ruritanian national anthem carries Colonel Zapt and Captain Fritz von Tarlenheim to the royal fishing reserve in the province of Zenda, where they find Rassendyll asleep under a tree. They are amazed at his resemblance to Prince Rudolph. At 0:38 we segue into “All in the Family” where Rassendyll is introduced to his cousin, Crown Prince Rudolph. They exchange pleasantries, and Rassendyll is invited to the coronation and to spend the night at the king’s hunting lodge. As they depart a gentle reprise of the Ruritanian anthem carries their progress. At 0:55 we segue into “Everybody Sleeps” atop somnolent harp glissandi as both the prince and Rassendyll pass out after drinking wine. An ominous, minor modal variant of the royal fanfare buttressed by gong strikes portend the architect of the drugging Rudolph’s half-brother Prince Michael who covets the throne. We close on a startling crescendo as Rassendyll is awakened by a pitcher of water emptied on his face.

In “Sleep Well, Your Majesty” Zapt advises that the king will remain unconscious for several hours as he has been drugged. He convinces Rassendyll to thwart Michael’s coup d’état by impersonating Prince Rudolf and proceeding with the coronation. Music enters with the royal fanfare and Rassendyll’s Theme entwining as he places the Rudolf’s royal ring on his finger to begin the deception. At 0:21 Newman sows a suspenseful musical narrative fortified with dire fanfare as Zapt concludes the caretaker is the culprit who drugged the king, commands her to drink from the bottle, and then orders von Tarlenheim to gag and tie up downstairs. At 2:11 strings nobile emote the Ruritanian national anthem as the paternalistic Zapt gently admonishes the comatose crown prince for his predicament. At 3:10 we segue into “Insert Proclamation” as we see Michael stamping his seal on a proclamation declaring himself regent and instituting martial law due to the failure of Crown Prince Rudolf to attend his coronation ceremony. He orders his minions to post the proclamation decree twenty minutes after the official start of the coronation ceremony. The fanfare reale of the royal house mutates into a minor modal iteration full of malevolence, which henceforth becomes Michael’s Motif.

Countess Antionette, who loves Michael visits and implores him to abandon his plans, instead marry her, and live a quiet and happy life together. He rebuffs her, clearly choosing power over love. In “Rupert Enters” Count Rupert of Hantzau enters carried by his sinister theme. He is Michael’s man, but impertinent, causing him to anger and depart. At 0:55 Antoinette’s Theme joins as Rupert, who desires her, informs her that if Michael becomes king, he will need to abandon her as he must marry Princess Flavia for legitimacy. She distrusts him and their themes interplay as he solicits her to conspire with him so they can both achieve their goals with Michael. She departs without comment leaving him to gloat, admiring his reflection in a mirror. “Coronation Train/Fanfare #1” reveals Rassendyll in the guise of Prince Rudolf arriving at the Strelsau train station where he is greeted by cheering crowds shouting “God Save The King!” Newman supports with fanfare reale and a proud, patriotic rendering of the national anthem by a military band. At 0:25 we segue into “Whatever My God Ordains” with heraldic fanfare reale announcing the arrival of Prince Rudolf, which stuns Prince Michael and Count Rupert. To support the commencement of the coronation ceremony, Newman chose to interpolate “Was Mein Gott Will, Das G’scheh Allzeit” (1725), a choral cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.

“See the Conquering Hero” reveals Rassendyll’s regal procession through the cathedral, which Newman supports solemnly with the chorus from the oratorio “Judas Maccabaeus” (1746) by George Fredric Handel. “Crown” reveals the cardinal placing the crown on Rassendyll’s head supported by a solemn church organ rendering of the Ruritanian national anthem. As the people shout “God Save The King”, we flow at 0:27 into “Fanfare #2” supported by field drums, which launch diegetic buisine declarations of the fanfare reale. At 0:36 we segue into “Flavia’s Coronation” atop an angelic a cappella wordless, women’s chorus, which supports the solemn walk of Princess Flavia, who approaches the dais for her coronation as Queen. She kneels before him, and professes her loyalty. He kisses her tenderly on both cheeks and we flow at 1:51 into a reprise of the music, (not used in the film), this time rendered with orchestral support of the chorus. At 3:06 we segue into “Dona Nobis” where Newman supports Rassendyll’s and Flavia’s departure. The traditional Latin prayer for peace is attributed to Mozart, date uncertain, and rendered here in glorious celebratory fashion by women’s chorus.

There is an album error for the flowing two cues; #8 “Rassendyll and Flavia in Carriage Band” offers music attached to the scene for cue #9 “Colman and Flavia Walk Inside”, and vice versa. So, adhering to film scene context, I use music in cue 9, to support Rassendyll and Flavia riding in the coronation carriage through the streets of the capital. The scene is supported by an extended patriotic rendering of the Ruritanian national anthem by military band. Inside the carriage there is tension, as Flavia offers backhanded compliments on ‘Rudolph’s sobriety’ and new found royal bearing, while he confuses her with his incongruous graciousness and modesty. Moving to cue 8, we have a romantic score highlight, supporting the couple waving to the crowd from a palace balcony and then retiring inside. He continues to be gracious and effusive in his compliments, and she marvels at his astounding transformation. Newman supports with romantic interplay of Rassendyll’s Theme, joined at 0:31 by a molto romantico rendering of their Love Theme.

“I Feel I Bored Your Majesty” sustains the molto romantico expression of the Love Theme as Rassendyll and Flavia share an intimate moment together until they are interrupted by the arrival of Prince Michael. Rassendyll purposely, albeit subtly, launches a series of nuanced barbs, intent on provoking Michael. He succeeds in producing a simmering anger, and Michael departs supported by his sinister fanfare. “Zapt and Rassendyll Riding & Zapt Takes Candles” reveals Zapt and Rassendyll sneaking out of the palace and riding to the hunting lodge to retrieve the king. Newman supports the ride kinetically with a vigorous, horn empowered galloping rendering of Rassendyll’s Theme. Upon their arrival at 0:13, a misterioso of uncertainty unfolds as the lodge has no lights on and the Rudolf’s servant is missing. They descend using candlelight into the cellar joined at 0:57 by a portentous bassoon as they discover the traitorous woman caretaker has been released. A crescendo of violence swells as Rassendyll attempts unsuccessfully to break down the cellar door, leading Zapt to break the lock firing his pistol. We end darkly as they discover Rudolf missing and his servant shot dead in the heart, with a note left which reads; “One king is enough for any kingdom”.

“It’s Just That” reveals Zapt contemplating their next move back at the palace. A beleaguered variant of the Ruritanian national anthem supports his request for Rassendyll to carry on the charade. An exasperated Rassendyll refuses, but Zapt cleverly baits him by alluding to the terrible fate that awaits Flavia – a forced marriage to Michael, if they do not find a way to stop him. At 0:37 Flavia’s Love Theme unfolds as Rassendyll takes the bait and agrees to assist as he loves Flavia. At 0:56 we segue into “Invitation to Ball”, which Newman supports with the Love Theme rendered as a valzer romantico. Rassendyll alters the invitation for Flavia to attend from an imperious command by the king, to a more personal entreaty by Rudolf. At 1:39 we segue into “King’s Entrance” as Rassendyll escorts Flavia arm to arm down a massive staircase into the royal ballroom, supported by a grand statement of the Ruritanian national anthem rendered as a processione maestoso.

“Artist’s Life” offers the commencement of the ball with an onscreen orchestra offering the “Artist’s Life Waltz” (1867) by Johan Strauss II. The classic valzer elegante flows wondrously as Rassendyll and Flavia grace the floor, while a menacing Prince Michael glares. “After Ambassador and Wife Leave” reveals Rassendyll successfully fooling the British ambassador, and then paying his respects to the cardinal. Rassendyll upsets Flavia when he responds to the cardinal’s query saying to set the date to marry at six months. Newman supports by interpolating the gentile court dance “Courante” by Jean-Baptiste Lully. In “Garden Sequence Waltz” Flavia is upset, prepares to retire for the evening, but is intercepted by Rassendyll, who apologizes and coaxes her to join him in the garden. Newman supports with a wonderful original, old world valzer elegante. At 0:39 we segue into “Nothing Your Highness” as Rassendyll drops all pretenses and fervently confesses his love, crowned with a passionate kissing embrace. Newman supports with their Love Theme, which begins tentatively, but blossoms as they kiss. At 2:31, the moment he is about to reveal his true identity, Zapt interrupts, reminding the ‘king’ of his duty. Newman supports with the Ruritanian national anthem rendered con dignità. We close with a coda of the Love Theme as they rejoin the party. Afterwards in an unscored scene Rassendyll and Zapt argue in private over the complication that he loves Flavia and does not want to give her up. Zapt reminds him of his duty and honor, which frustrates him as he orders Zapt to find the king, before it is too late.

“If the Englishman Dies First” reveals Michael in his private study, where Rupert informs him that the ‘king’ is an imposter, and in reality, Rassendyll. He also informs that the real king is being held hostage in a woodcutter’s cottage. He promises to assist securing the throne for Michael, who agrees to grant him the second most powerful position in court, with a substantial monetary payoff. As Michael proposes murdering Rassendyll first, his and Rupert’s themes entwine for dark purpose in unholy communion. In Rassendyll and Fritz by Wall”, Rassendyll receives a note from Fritz from Antionette who requests a secret meeting. Newman joins Rassendyll’s Theme with unsettling amorphous tension as he stealthily climbs over a wall and meets with Antionette inside a derelict cabin. At 1:36 Antionette’s tender theme emotes as a yearning valzer romantico as she warns him that three assassins are coming, and that Michael’s plan to move Rudolf to his castle at Zenda. She proposes a plan to rescue the king, restore him to the throne so he, and not Michael marries Flavia. She and Michael would then depart Ruritania to live a life of love together in exile. To ensure the deal, she offers an earring, and says her courier will present him the other with her plan. At 2:37 we segue ominously into “Rupert’s Truce” a score action highlight, atop his lurking and sinister theme. He feigns a truce offer, intent with his two-armed guards to shoot Rassendyll upon sight. Antionette escapes out a side door and Rassendyll barters for time with comedic textures joining as he escapes out a hole in the roof. At 3:27 tremolo strings support the growing tension of Rupert’s decision to enter as Rassendyll’s Theme slowly gains force with interplay against Rupert’s Theme. At 3:56 Rupert bursts in firing and Newman offers a heroic Rassendyll’s Theme as he successfully eludes Rupert and his henchmen and escapes acrobatically up a tree, bounding over the wall to safety as he and Fritz flee. We close at 4:33 with heraldic fanfare reale as a proclamation declares the king is departing for hunting at his lodge in Zenda.

“Rudolf It’s Michael” reveals that Flavia is upset that ‘Rudolf’ is abandoning her to go boar hunting. Their Love Theme emotes as he assuages her anger, admitting that the hunting trip is a rouse to conceal his plan to deal with Michael. She confesses her love and their theme blossoms at 0:35 as he takes her into his arms and kisses her. As he departs, she begs him to ensure he comes back to her. At 1:43 horns sinistre herald the audacious arrival of Rupert at the hunting lodge. Rassendyll orders Zapt and Fritz to restrain their impulse to shoot him on sight. He meets with Rupert who offers to kill Michael and the king so Rassendyll can secure Rassendyll the throne and marry Flavia. His price; title to all Michael’s lands, castles and wealth. Rassendyll rejects his hand shake to formulize the deal, and offers mocking laughter as he explains the offer to Zapt and Fritz. At 2:02 we segue with a treacherous Rupert’s Theme into “Knife Into Wall” as he hurls a knife at Ressendyll, which misses, leaps out the window, and boldly escapes on horseback propelled by his theme. Horns sinistre support Rupert’s arrival at Michael’s castle to conclude the cue.

In an unscored scene Rupert taunts Rudolf assuring him that any attack on this castle will lead to his death. As he departs Michael arrives and offers Rudolf safe passage out of the country if he signs the proclamation letter of his abdication. He refuses and the scene shifts back to the hunting lodge where Antionette’s courier presents him with her other earring and says the rescue must proceed tonight as a Hussar regimen arrives tomorrow to reinforce the castle. He provides blueprints to the castle and a plan to infiltrate. In “I Swim That Moat” Rudolf plan is to swim the moat after he is signaled at 2:00 am. He will sneak to the dungeon, overcome the two guards, and guard the king until the drawbridge is lowered so loyalist soldiers may enter and rescue them. Horns nobile offer a muted royal fanfare that is joined by a muted heroic rendering of Rassendyll’s Theme. This muted musical narrative supports Rassendyll, Zapt, Fritz and their soldiers arriving at the castle. They see the signal at 2:00 am and Rassendyl swims the moat and climbs into Antionette’s bed chamber where they review the plan as the courier leaves and prepares to lower the drawbridge. She provides Rassendyll directions and he departs with stealth from her room.

“Murder” reveals Michael entering Antionette’s bedchamber and discovering Rupert embracing her. He is furious, lunges at Rupert, who mortally stabs him with his dagger. Music enters as Antionette kneels over Michael supported by a grieving rendering of her theme. After she blurts out that she planned to save him, Rupert becomes suspicious and departs carried by his menacing theme. He sees the courier trying to release the drawbridge rope, sneaks up behind him supported by a crescendo of violence that crests as he bludgeons him to death at 0:49. Rupert’s Theme resounds on horns of alarm as he rouses the castle and deploys his guards. “Rupert in Dungeon” reveals Rassendyll fighting for his life against two guards. He kills the first with a dagger, and then saves the king, killing the second guard who was poised to slay him with his saber. A ferocious Rassendyll’s Theme propels his fight for survival as Newman unleashes an action furioso. In an unscored scene, Rassendyll locks the king in the cell for his safety only to discover Rupert point a pistol at him. Rassendyll slyly attempts to forestall his death by asking for a last cigarette.

“Duel” was composed by Hugo Friedhofer who offers an epic score action highlight that supports one of cinema’s greatest duels. As Rassendyll tosses the cigarette case back to Rupert, he lunges and dislodges the pistol, which he then knocks down into the drain. Rupert grabs a saber and Rassendyll successfully evades using furniture, eventually also grabbing a saber. A fierce saber fight ensues as Friedhofer unleashes an orchestral maelstrom during which Rupert’s and Rassendyll’s themes contest. We close with a wounded Rassendyll cutting the drawbridge rope, which allows loyalist soldiers to enter the castle. Rupert hears the gunfire, and at 4:53 horns sinistre resound with his theme followed by a descent motif as he decides to flee out a window, jumping into the moat to avoid capture. At 5:03 we segue into “Zapt and King”, where the score achieves its emotional apogee. Royal Fanfare borne by horns dramatico resound as Zapt joins Rassendyll. Later in the palace, Rudolf thanks Zapt for his loyal service, and apologizes for slapping him. Newman supports with the Ruritanian Anthem borne by French horns nobile and violins tenero. Rudolf summons Rassendyll and thanks his cousin for saving him, and teaching him how to be a king. Newman weaves a muted and sentimental tapestry with interplay of the fanfare reale, Rassendyll’s Theme and the Ruritanian Anthem. Rassendyll departs and meets with Flavia after Zapt informs him that she is here and knows everything. At 6:23 their Love Theme supports as she thanks him for his service. They both profess their undying love for each other and he asks her to depart with him. At 6:55 the fanfare reale resound on horns nobile as Flavia says that honor and duty to her House and Ruritania must come before love. At 7:09 an exquisitely sad and aching rendering of their Love Theme voices their regrets, her eternal love, and the pain of his departure, as both know they can never see each other again. At 10:51 we segue into “End Title and Cast” atop fanfare reale as Zapt and Fritz escort Rassendyll to the border. As they shake hands Fritz declares that fate does not always chose the best king. As Rassendyll rides off we close nobly\ with repeating statements of the Royal Fanfare, which crests in a flourish as “The End” displays. A proud and patriotic rendering of the Ruritanian National Anthem supports the display of the Cast Credits.

The original 1937 three-track stereo masters for the score were transferred to ¼ inch monaural tape, a standard, but inexplicable practice of MGM in the 1950s. As such, the technical team has digitally mastered the existing tape and the album provides enhanced monaural sound. The audio quality is not ideal, but the listener may still appreciate the beauty of Newman’s handiwork. Newman was presented with a swashbuckling period piece that offered romance, unrequited love, suspense and treachery. He crafted a score with classic waltzes, royal fanfares and a national anthem, which provided the requisite pomp and circumstance to speak to the monarch, aristocratic ruling class and the royal court. Our hero Rassendyll is empowered by a bold and confident theme, that animates him during action scenes and the epic duel with Rupert. The Love Theme for Flavia is one of Newman’s most ardent with its most impassioned rendering heard in the finale. Antionette is a tragic character fated to suffer unrequited love as Michael cherishes power more than love. Her sad valzer romantico perfectly speaks to her circumstances. Our two villains are also supported quite well. Ingenious is how Newman mutates the major modal royal fanfare into a malignant minor modal corruption for the evil half-brother Michael who seeks to usurp the throne. Folks, this is a very entertaining and enjoyable score that merited its Academy Award nomination in 1937. Because it was reused in this 1952 film, it was not eligible for awards consideration. I consider this a Golden Age classic, and a testament to Newman’s and Salinger’s mastery of their craft. Despite its monaural audio, I believe this album is worthy of your collection, and essential to Newman enthusiasts like myself.

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to a wonderful seven-minute suite: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIIRDiAgoXg

Buy the Prisoner of Zenda album from the Movie Music UK Store

Track Listing:

  • Main Title (2:03)
  • Colman Walk (Rassendyll Walk)/All in the Family/Everybody Sleeps (1:37)
  • Sleep Well, Your Majesty/Insert Proclamation (3:51)
  • Rupert Enters (3:03)
  • Coronation Train/Fanfare #1/Whatever My God Ordains (Bach) (1:35)
  • See the Conquering Hero (Handel) (1:44)
  • Crown/Fanfare #2/Flavia’s Coronation/Dona Nobis (Mozart) (3:20)
  • Colman and Flavia in Carriage Band (Rassendyll and Flavia in Carriage Band) (1:53)
  • Colman and Flavia Walk Inside (Rassendyll and Flavia Walk Inside) (1:44)
  • I Feel I Bore Your Majesty (2:26)
  • Zapt and Colman Riding (Zapt and Rassendyll Riding) & Zapt Takes Candles (1:31)
  • It’s Just That/Invitation to Ball/King’s Entrance (2:36)
  • Artist’s Life (J. Strauss) (1:09)
  • After Ambassador and Wife Leave (Lully) (1:28)
  • Garden Sequence Waltz/Nothing Your Highness (3:21)
  • If the Englishman Dies First (0:36)
  • Rassendyll and Fritz by Wall/Rupert’s Truce (4:51)
  • Rudolf It’s Michael/Knife Into Wall (2:43)
  • I Swim That Moat (1:50)
  • Murder (1:18)
  • Rupert in Dungeon (1:07)
  • Duel/Zapt and King/End Title and Cast (11:31)

Running Time: 57 minutes 17 seconds

Film Score Monthly FSMCD Vol. 7, No. 1 (1952/2004)

Music composed by Alfred Newman. Conducted by Johnny Green. Music from the 1938 score adapted by Conrad Salinger. Orchestrations by Al Sendry, Hugo Friedhofer, Edward Powell, P.A. Marquardt and Rafaello Penso . Recorded and mixed by Philippe Pélissier. Score produced by Alfred Newman . Album produced by Lukas Kendall.

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