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ODNA [ALONE] – Dmitri Shostakovich

January 27, 2020 Leave a comment Go to comments

MOVIE MUSIC UK CLASSICS

Original Review by Craig Lysy

Film-making in the 1930s Soviet Union was very tightly regulated by the state to ensure fidelity to the ideals of the revolution. Directors Leonid Trauberg and Grigori Kozintsev found inspiration in news reports of the dire challenges faced by two teachers. They conceived their film to address three political issues of the day; the State’s promotion of education, the elimination of the kulaks (land owning peasants), and the introduction of modern technology. The film was originally conceived as a silent film, but was later changed to include dialogue and music by composer Dmitri Shostakovich. With the additional demand by the State for realism in film, each actor would use their real names as the characters. Yelena Kuzima would star in the lead role as the school teacher Joining her would be Pyotr Sobolevsky as her husband, Sergey Gerasimov as the local Council Chairman and Mariya Babanova as the Chairman’s wife.

The story is set in the Leningrad in the 1930s. Yelena Kuzima has graduated and earned her teaching credential. She dreams of an idyllic life with her husband in Leningrad teaching polite and disciplined children. Yet the ministry of education assigns her to the remote and undeveloped Altai Mountains in southeast Siberia. She does not wish to leave civilization and her appeal to the ministry to remain in Leningrad is granted, but the specter of government disfavor eventually forces her to accept the post. She immediately encounters culture shock as the superstitious sheep herding villagers oppose her mission. The local Soviet official is indifferent to her problems and eventually despite her best efforts with the children is forced to leave after village elders and try to kill her. There is no information regarding production costs, however we know it was extremely popular with the public, remaining in the theaters many years until falling out of favor with the Communist Party in the mid-1930s.

Directors Trauberg and Kozintsev again approached Dmitri Shostakovich, who at that time was one of the most revered and respected composers of classical music in the world, to write the score for their film. Shostakovich already had experience of writing for film, having contributed music to their 1929 film New Babylon, and accepted the commission. Shostakovich realized after New Babylon that he would have to adapt his compositional sensibilities to succeed in the new emerging film idiom. Long lined and expansive constructs just did not lend themselves well to the inevitable film editing process. As such he opted for a more versatile and compartmentalized approach and composed numerous small, discreet pieces, vignettes, which could be more easily edited, shifted and adaptable to the film editing. His conception of his score was ambitious and he would infuse it with romantic ballads and dramatic full orchestral statements. He also made innovative use of instruments, incorporating a barrel organ, two metallic antennae with an amplifier and oscillator, and notably the Theremin, which made its film debut under him. The human voice is prominent in the film and several acclaimed singers were recruited including Irina Mataeva (soprano), Anna Kiknadze (mezzo-soprano), Dmitri Voropaev (tenor); Mark van Tongeren (overtone singer). Shostakovich did not choose to utilize traditional western leitmotifs instead reprising a number of his motific vignettes to provide continuity and cohesiveness to his soundscape.

“The Beginning” offers a short Overture, which was not utilized in the film. Heraldic fanfare boldly opens the optimistic, allegro paced piece that is bursting with life and propelled by strings energico and bubbling woodwinds animato. The film opens with the roll of the opening credits, which is not supported musically. We enter the film proper with “Kuzmina Wakes” where we see the alarm clock ringing at 11:00 am and Yelena tossing a pillow at it, resisting getting up. We hear birdsong, see flowers in a glass, a photo of her fiancé Pyotyr and bustling city life on the streets below. Yelena clearly does not want to get up, and Shostakovich juxtaposes this with a playful, carnivalesque piece bubbling with life. In “Konchen, Konchen Tekhnikum” Yelena gets up and begins washing up at the sink, dresses and caresses Pyotyr’s photo. Soprano Irina Mataeva sings a song to support the scene; the song is brimming with life, energy and optimism, and perfectly supports the scene. We segue into “Morning Exercises” where we see Yelena performing her morning ritual of exercises, eating breakfast and writing a note. She has engaged life and her efforts are propelled by a spritely tune carried by upper register bubbling woodwinds animato with counters by low register woodwinds. This is a delightful peace abounding with joie de vie!

“March, “The Street” reveals Yelena finishing her breakfast and departing her apartment. Shostakovich propels the scene with an infectious, energetic marcia animato! “Kuzmina Waits for Sobolevsky” offers a score highlight and a woodwind lovers delight. Fanciful oboe, flute and piccolo dance about with an amazing lightness of being as we see Yelena patiently waiting on a street corner for her beau. “Galop – Kakaya horoshaya budet zhizn’!” presents another score highlight, an amazing kinetic tour de force. We see our two lovers window shopping and we soon transition to a dream montage where we see through Yelena’s eyes her living an idyllic life with Pyotyr, as well as an idealized clean and orderly classroom where she teaches perfectly behaved students. We open vigorously with faced paced bubbling woodwinds, strings energico, xylophone kinetics and trumpets animato as we see the two of them window shopping. At 1:07 we transition to the dream sequence, which Shostakovich supports with tenor Dmitri Voropaev’s vocals.

“March” offers an interesting juxtaposition. We see Yelena devastated after receiving a letter in which the Ministry of Education informs her of her teaching assignment in Siberia. Shostakovich oddly chooses irony to support the scene with a marcia comica. “(Original) Introduction” was intended to provide an introduction of the film, but was dialed out of the final cut, which is a tragedy as I believe it to be a truly beautiful score highlight. Violins tenero and kindred strings join in a sad andante paced nocturne replete with woodwinds pastorale. At 1:58 we segue back into the film with “The Cockery Sings: Ostan’sya!”, a beautiful choral piece where we see Yelena wistfully window shopping, with the realization that her dreams will not be fulfilled. Shostakovich supports her sadness with the vocals of Irina Mataeva and Dmitri Voropaev supported by chorus singing the song “Ostan’sya!“;

“Office Type Writers” reveals Yelena typing a letter in which she requests to remain in Leningrad, which is supported by a snare drum rhythm. In “A Young Girl Signs Up” we are offered a score highlight. We see a young girl signing up to do her part in supporting the Party, as a conflicted Yelena looks on. Shostakovich supports the scene with an energetic marica patriottica, but not with the traditional pomp, but rather with a more animated articulation, expressed from the young girl’s perspective. “Music from the Loudspeakers During Telephone Box Scene” supports a scene where a distressed Yelena is makes a telephone call from a public booth. Shostakovich interpolates an exquisitely beautiful piece for solo violin by Padre Martini, arranged by F. Kreisler. “Kuzmina Starts to Sign Up” reveals her conflicted to do her duty and signing up for the post in Siberia. Shostakovich reprises his marcia patriottica with a more mature stately articulation as it now articulated from Yelena’s perspective. “March” reprises the marcia comica of the earlier “March” cue, again providing irony to the scene where Yelena awaits her meeting with Nadezhda Krupskaya. “Barrel – Organ” continues her agonizing wait for her meeting with Krupskaya. Once again Shostakovich goes for irony, by juxtaposing the barrel organ motif to emote a festive dance like piece. Eventually to her surprise, her request to remain in Leningrad is granted and she departs elated. But her elation is short-lived in “The Old Janitor Flirts with Her” as an old janitor manages to convince her to the proper path as we see her tear up the letter allowing her to remain in Leningrad. Ironically, Shostakovich reprises the song “Kakaya horoshaya budet zhizn’” (How good life will be!”) to support the scene.

In “Overtone Singer” we are provided a vista of the vast, bleak Siberian landscape. Shostakovich supports the scene with ambient wordless vocals of Mark van Tongeren, which are as bleak and strange as the Siberian wilderness. It succeeds informing us that Yelena is not in Leningrad anymore. “The Steppe of the Altai” offers scenes of their culture as we see the villagers herding sheep and then later shearing them for their wool. French horns join with interplay of flute impart a bleak and unwelcoming soundscape devoid of any warmth or hospitality. “The Altai” offers a score highlight and its longest cue. Yelena has arrived and received a cool greeting by the villagers. As she leaves the shearing party in the countryside and journeys to the village, she comes upon their horse totem, and we see in her expression discomfort and concern for her circumstances. Shostakovich fleshes out these emotions with a fine exposition, offering a bleak piece carried by bassoon, kindred woodwinds and pizzicato strings. It meanders aimlessly, never culminating, never resolving, never coalescing into a cogent construct, remaining illusive and intangible. At 3:49 the music dissociates, loses form and becomes strange, reflecting her discomfort with the horse totem. The confluence of film narrative, imagery and music is perfect. In “She Meets the Village Chairman and Some of the Locals” Yelena is greeted by the local Council Chairman Sergey Gerasimov, who introduces her to his wife Mariya Babanova and the village elders. The soundscape auras of the previous cue are reprised, yet with a more plodding rhythmic structure. Upper register woodwinds are juxtaposed to the cadence of low register woodwinds and we see that Yelena seems strangely out of place.

“Kuzmina in Her Peasant’s Hut” offers a score highlight, which brings home Yelena’s sad circumstances and determination to succeed. Grim horns and woodwinds pulse from the lowest registers as she enters to find a dirty and dilapidated hut. The music speaks to her despondency, yet at 0:47 as she looks out the window to see verdant flower draped hillsides, the music is transformed to a more upbeat tempo. A solo oboe gentile supports her view of the countryside and is joined by prancing kindred woodwinds which enliven her spirits. As she unpacks her bag, we see a determination to make this her home as we see her place her alarm clock and photo of Pyotyr. At 1:56 the music becomes playful, child-like and full of life as we change scenes and see little naked boys frolicking as well as a young colt playing. We conclude at 2:30 with the melody transformed into a marcia felice as Yelena sets up her classroom. “Kuzmina Takes Courage” reveals Yelena practicing her lessons now filled with optimism and a new found purpose. The barrel-organ motif supports the scene. “Introduction” reveals the onset of winter and a panorama of the snow swept plains. A solo piccolo gentile repeating a nine-note phrase supports the visuals. In “The School Class” the Children’s Motif, lively ethnic music featuring trumpets, wood block percussion, drums, and bubbling woodwinds support the village children in her classroom. They are clearly attentive and fascinated by Yelena and their lessons.

“The Bai Selects the Children to Tend The Sheep” reveals Shostakovich’s mystery in fleshing out the tension of this scene. We see Yelena’s lesson being interrupted by the Bai (village elder). He insists that several of the children come with him to tend the sheep. Yelena does her best to reason with him and stress the benefit of education for the children, but he will not be deterred as he signals several boys to leave. Shostakovich supports the scene with repeating dire horn blasts and a forlorn solo oboe, which play over a grim bass sustain, creating a sad exposition. In “Kuzmina is Struck as She Protests” the Bai strikes Yelena after she protests his actions. Snare drums erupt and a single drum strike carries the blow. The forlorn solo oboe returns to carry the aftermath, concluding with a harsh string ostinato and angry timpani strikes. “The Village Children’s Wife Sings A Lullaby to Her Baby” opens with the nine-note piccolo motif and reveals the Chairman’s wife singing a lullaby to their infant son, which is supported by the vocals of mezzo-soprano Anna Kiknadze.,

In “Kuzmina Sees the Wife’s Crockery and Reminisces” Yelena visits Mariya and when she sees her crockery, we see her reminisce. Shostakovich supports the scene with a festive reprise “Kakaya horoshaya budet zhizn’!” by tenor Dmitri Voropaev. “The Village Soviet Chairman Waking Up” offers a stunning score highlight of incredible power. It reveals a terrified Mariya as their clock alarms unexpectedly to wake up the Chairman. He wakes and sips his tea indifferent to Yelena’s problems with the Bai stating that he has no instructions regarding the children and that they are not his concern. When he looks at the Soviet poster on his wall that orders the expulsion of kulaks from their collective farms and tells Yelena that it “looks pretty” it becomes crystal clear that he will be of no assistance. Shostakovich supports the scene the Chairman’s Motif, a harsh churning low register string ostinato joined with wailing trombones. Slowly the music coalesces into a grim oppressive melody, which crests in a powerful crescendo that ends dramatically in a flourish. In “Kuzmina Confronts the Village Chairman” we have another score highlight where the powerful dramatic writing is sustained as Yelena challenges the Chairman to help her to educate the children. Rapid surging strings ascend and crash like waves on the rocks as dire authoritarian horns resound in fury and grim finality. The Chairman dismisses her words and counters that she does not understand, and should to be content that she gets paid on time. Yelena is devastated a runs out into the cold.

“The Village Chairman Drinks Tea with His Wife” is scored comically with prancing woodwinds and farcical trombones as the Chairman enjoys his tea and smirks at the Soviet poster. In “The Children Play and Dance with Her” Yelena is not to be deterred and resolves “If the children cannot show up at school, the school will go to the children.” As she begins her lesson a plaintive cello supports her efforts. Yet a woodwind ascent at 0:50 ushers in a delightful danza giocosa as she instructs the children to hold hands and dance in a circle to help them stay warm. We end with a grim diminuendo as she observes the stern Bai looking at them from afar. “The Bai and the Sheep Trader, a Sheep is Slaughtered” grim low register woodwinds carry the Bai to Yelena and are countered by high register woodwinds. He informs her that she can take the children back to school as he has sold a sheep. At 1:38 the Bail orders the sheep to be killed for the merchant and Yelena leads the children away carried by celli sinistre. At 2:22 a piccolo counters grim, kindred woodwinds as she pleads with the Bai to spare the sheep. “In Kuzmina Protests” Yelena vigorously protests the illegal selling and killing of the sheep, which Shostakovich supports with another score highlight, a ferocious orchestral torrent of fury. When the Bai grabs her, she returns the favor and pushes him to the ground, a grave loss of face in Asian people. “The Bai Shouts Back at Her” resumes the battle of woodwinds with her solo piccolo contesting his dire low register woodwinds. At 0:25 horns bellicoso resound with fury, unleashing a ferocious orchestral torrent as he asserts his right to sell and slaughter the sheep.

When the Chairman arrives and refuses to stop the illegal sale in “The Locals Conspire to Murder Kuzmina” Yelena declares that she will travel to the regional Soviet to obtain the regulations regarding the sale and slaughter of sheep. This is the last straw for the elders and they conspire to murder Yelena. Shostakovich provides another score highlight with dramatic writing of the highest order. We open with an orchestral torrent as the elders are enraged. At 1:03 strings sinistre and dire woodwinds join in unholy communion as the Bai commences a plot to murder her. He states that she should go as he will be eventually proved right. At 1:51 the strings and woodwinds descend into a dark menacing abyss full of dark purpose as he offers his driver and sled to take her to the regional Soviet. At 3:27 as she contemplates and accepts his offer a plaintive piccolo dances over the sinister abyss. With this cue the film reels for this part of the movie were destroyed during the siege of Leningrad during WWII. As such there are not scenes to view, only script which explains what is happening. In “Kuzmina on Her Way to The Next Town” Yelena departs carried not by traditional travelling music, but something more sinister.

Low register strings energico and dire woodwinds carry their progress, yet with an undercurrent of dark purpose. At 1:02 dire horns resound and unleash orchestral fury as the driver convinces Yelena to step off the sled and stretch her legs. Rapid strings of treachery launch dire horns, which propel an orchestral torrent as he streaks away, abandoning Yelena to certain death. Yelena is stunned and as the driver disappears the orchestral torrent dissipates into a grim diminuendo of doom.

In “A Snowstorm Starts to Build” Yelena follows the sled trail but makes slow progress in the deep snow. Conditions worsen as a snow storm beckons. Shostakovich creates a cold, surreal, other-worldly sound using two metallic antennae with an amplifier and oscillator, which join with a Theremin to create a frightening soundscape as she struggles forward. A dire woodwind ascent ushers in a seamless segue into “Snowstorm” where Shostakovich whips his orchestra into frenzy. A woodwind supported diminuendo commences at 0:50 and the string ostinato and energy of the woodwinds gradually weaken as Yelena slowly begins to succumb to the implacable power of nature. Yet the ostinato regains its vital energy as the scene shift to the villagers who decide the next morning to mount a rescue effort. They eventually find her near frozen three miles from the school. A grim woodwind descent of death supports their lifting of her body from the snow. “Kuzmina Almost Freezes to Death (beginning)” reveals that she is at death’s doorstep and barely feels anything. The villagers take her back to the village and attempt to warm life back into her. Ethereal violins dance eerily over a foreboding grim bass sustain to support the retrieval efforts. We segue into “Kuzmina Almost Freezes to Death (conclusion)” and the strings begin to warm as Yelena struggles to hang on to life, coalescing into a tender melody of hope. At 2:34 a solo flute doloroso unfolds for a beautiful extended soliloquy, providing one of the score’s finest passages. It supports the villager’s grief over what has happened to Yelena and they agree to meet with the Chairman and Bai to demand answers.In “The Village Chairman Meets with the Locals” thrice repeating declarations by horns irato support the Chairman’s lame denial that the sheep had anything to do with what happened to Yelena.

“Kuzmina Close to Death to Bed” reveals her waking with thick mittens on her hands. She smiles and mezzo-soprano Anna Kiknadze supports the moment with a reprise of the tender lullaby. “The Village Chairman and Meeting” reveals the Chairman making the self-serving declaration that the Soviet is incapable of doing anything wrong. Shostakovich reprises the angry horn declarations of cue 42. In “The Children Come to Comfort Kuzmina” the village children come to visit Yelena. Their playful ethnic motif of wood block percussion, drums, and bubbling woodwinds support their arrival and gifting of a doll. “The Village Chairman Plans Her Funeral” reveals the Chairman announcing the plan for Yelena’s funeral supported by his motif of a harsh churning low register string ostinato joined with wailing trombone descents. “The Locals Express Themselves Violently” offers a powerful score highlight where Shostakovich brings the house down. The villagers demand that the Chairman pay for the funeral and then ask “Why did we elect you – to help us die?” They then vent their anger at the Bai who was allowed to profit from this. They compose a telegram that exonerates Yelena and asks for a plane to take her to hospital to treat her. Once again Shostakovich whips his orchestra into a torrential frenzy, which actualizes the anger and outrage of the villagers at the Chairman, the Soviet and the Bai.We close the film with “The Aeroplane from Moscow Arrives to Rescue the Teacher” a celebratory score highlight and what I believe one of the finest musical endings in cinematic history. A prelude of bubbling woodwinds and soft strings support the rescue plane flying into view. We crescendo and crest on horns gioiose as the plane lands and is warmly greeted by the villagers. As the villagers carry Yelena to the plane, she says that she will return to them one day. As the plane departs, Shostakovich supports the happy occasion with an unbridled celebratory piece, which unfolds gloriously as a stirring paean of joy!

I would like to thank Hans-Berhard Batzing and Naxos Records for this long-sought recording of the complete score to Dmity Shostakovich’s masterpiece, “Odna”. This recording would not have been possible without the score’s masterful restoration by Mark Fitz-Gerald. Additionally, his conducting of the Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra was outstanding and a tribute to Shostakovich’s genius. The score’s audio is flawless and provides an excellent listening experience. As first conceived, the film was to be silent and so the composer was tasked with a heavier burden in assisting the directors in expressing their story and fleshing out the emotions of the characters. Shostakovich succeeded on every count with innovative use of instruments, operatic and overtone vocalists, and dynamic orchestral writing. The use of irony and juxtaposition also served to elevate this score and allow Trauberg and Kozintsev to realize their vision. Folks, rarely do you see such extraordinary music in film. In scene after scene Shostakovich enhanced the film and fleshed out the character’s emotional dynamics. The music is rich, powerfully persuasive, innovative and abounding in Russian melody. I consider this to be one of the finest film scores of the Silent Film Age, perhaps the finest in Shostakovich’s canon and an essential score for collectors. I highly recommend the purchase of this extraordinary album for your collection.

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to cue 41, “Kuzmina Almost Freezes to Death”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INBkY7ZvH94

Buy the Odna soundtrack from the Movie Music UK Store

Track Listing:

  • The Beginning (Overture) (0:53)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: Kuzmina Wakes (1:20)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: Konchen, Konchen Tekhnikum (1:05)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: Morning Exercises (1:27)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: March, “The Street” (0:37)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: Kuzmina Waits Sobolevsky (0:42)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: Galop – Kakaya Horoshaya Budet Zhizn’! (How Good Life Will Be!) (2:42)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: March (0:45)
  • Kuzmina in Leningrad: (Original) Introduction – The Cockery Sings: Ostan’sya! (Stay!) (3:59)
  • Kuzmina Enlists as a Teacher: Office Typewriters (0:04)
  • Kuzmina Enlists as a Teacher: A Young Girl Signs Up (0:59)
  • Kuzmina Enlists as a Teacher: Music from the Loudspeakers During Telephone Box Scene (composed by Padre Martini, arr. F. Kreisler) (0:57)
  • Kuzmina Enlists as a Teacher: Kuzmina Starts to Sign Up (1:05)
  • Kuzmina Enlists as a Teacher: March (0:47)
  • Kuzmina Enlists as a Teacher: Barrel – Organ (1:05)
  • Kuzmina Enlists as a Teacher: The Old Janitor Flirts with Her (0:31)
  • Kuzmina Arrives Alone in the Altai Steppes: Overtone Singer (0:43)
  • Kuzmina Arrives Alone in the Altai Steppes: The Steppe of the Altai (0:57)
  • Kuzmina Arrives Alone in the Altai Steppes: The Altai (4:59)
  • Kuzmina Arrives Alone in the Altai Steppes: She Meets the Village Chairman and Some of the Locals (3:38)
  • Kuzmina Arrives Alone in the Altai Steppes: Kuzmina in Her Peasant’s Hut (3:07)
  • Kuzmina Arrives Alone in the Altai Steppes: Kuzmina Takes Courage (0:25)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: Introduction (0:20)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: The School Class (0:59)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: The Bai Selects the Children to Tend The Sheep (2:53)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: Kuzmina is Struck as She Protests (0:43)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: The Village Children’s Wife Sings A Lullaby to Her Baby (2:46)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: Kuzmina Sees the Wife’s Crockery and Reminisces (0:51)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: The Village Soviet Chairman Waking Up (3:04)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: Kuzmina Confronts the Village Chairman (1:16)
  • Kuzmina Starts Teaching the Local Children: The Village Chairman Drinks Tea with His Wife (0:41)
  • Kuzmina Teaches in the Open Air: The Children Play and Dance with Her (2:12)
  • Kuzmina Teaches in the Open Air: The Bai and the Sheep Trader, a Sheep is Slaughtered (2:48)
  • Kuzmina Teaches in the Open Air: Kuzmina Protests (1:24)
  • Kuzmina Teaches in the Open Air: The Bai Shouts Back at Her (1:11)
  • Kuzmina Teaches in the Open Air: The Locals Conspire to Murder Kuzmina (4:44)
  • Attempted Murder of Kuzmina: Kuzmina on Her Way to The Next Town (2:06)
  • Attempted Murder of Kuzmina: A Snowstorm Starts to Build (1:13)
  • Attempted Murder of Kuzmina: Snowstorm (2:18)
  • Attempted Murder of Kuzmina: Kuzmina Almost Freezes to Death (beginning) (1:33)
  • Attempted Murder of Kuzmina: Kuzmina Almost Freezes to Death (conclusion) (4:47)
  • Kuzmina’s Rescue by Aeroplane: The Village Chairman Meets with the Locals (0:28)
  • Kuzmina’s Rescue by Aeroplane: Kuzmina Close to Death to Bed (0:57)
  • Kuzmina’s Rescue by Aeroplane: The Village Chairman and Meeting (0:26)
  • Kuzmina’s Rescue by Aeroplane: The Children Come to Comfort Kuzmina (1:08)
  • Kuzmina’s Rescue by Aeroplane: The Village Chairman Plans Her Funeral (0:55)
  • Kuzmina’s Rescue by Aeroplane: The Locals Express Themselves Violently (1:39)
  • Kuzmina’s Rescue by Aeroplane: The Aeroplane from Moscow Arrives to Rescue the Teacher (3:46)

Running Time: 79 minutes 55 seconds

Naxos 8.570316 (1931/2008)

Music composed by Dmitri Shostakovich. Conducted by Mark Fitzgerald. Performed by the Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra. Original orchestrations by Dmitri Shostakovich. Recorded and mixed by Thomas Eschler. Score produced by Dmitri Shostakovich. Album produced by Mark Fitzgerald and Hans-Bernhard Bätzing.

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