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THE BLACK SWAN – Alfred Newman


Original Review by Craig Lysy

Following the massive success of Warner Brothers The Sea Hawk in 1940, 20th Century Fox Studios decided to cash in on the 1932 Rafael Sabatini novel The Black Swan. Production chief Darryl F. Zanuck purchased the film rights as the perfect new adventure for the studio’s star actor Tyrone Power. Robert Bassler was placed in charge of production and provided a budget of $1.494 million. Henry King was tasked with directing, and Ben Hecht and Seton I. Miller hired to adapt the novel and write the screenplay. A stellar cast was assembled, which included Tyrone Power as Jaime Waring, Maureen O’Hara as Lady Margaret Denby, Laird Cregar as Henry Morgan, Thomas Mitchell as Tom Blue, George Sanders as Billy Leech, Anthony Quinn as Wogan and Edward Ashley as Roger Ingram.

The film is set in the Caribbean circa 1660, following the end of the Anglo-Spanish War. Following the war, privateer Sir Henry Morgan decides to go legit and as a reward is made Governor of Jamaica with the explicit mandate from the king to rid the Caribbean once and for all of pirates. This splits the pirate brotherhood with Captain Waring ending his piracy, while Captains Leech and Wogan refuse. Morgan orders Waring to bring Leech and Wogan to justice. Before he sets sail he sweeps up Lady Margaret who he has fallen in love with, to forestall her impending marriage to Roger Ingram who is in cahoots with Leech and Wogan! Well, this all escalates into an epic battle between Waring and Leech, with Waring winning the day as well as Lady Margaret. The film was a commercial success, earning a profit of $2.37 million. Critics praised the film for its robust and enjoyable adventure. It earned three Academy Award nominations for Best Special Effects, Best Film Score, winning one for Best Cinematography.

Director Henry King and Alfred Newman had collaborated on five prior films including Ramona (1936), Alexander’s Ragtime Band (1938) for which he won an Oscar for Music Direction, Little Old New York (1940), Remember The Day (1941), and The Yank in the RAF (1941). As such Newman used his prerogative as 20th Century Fox Director of Music to assign himself the project. Newman understood that this film offered swashbuckling action, navel battles, romance, and a seafaring adventure. He also understood that he would have to infuse his soundscape with the requisite sea shanties and songs of the era to support cultural authenticity. As was his customary practice, Newman chose to utilize leitmotifs to support the major characters and settings.

His soundscape is supported by four primary themes, and five secondary motifs. Jaime’s Theme emoted by confident horns bravura declarations supports his identity as the dashing, handsome hero who inspires, makes ladies swoon, and wins the day. The Pirate’s Theme music offers a classic sea shanty with lyrics provided by Charles Henderson. This highly energetic and dynamic theme propels much of the action and serves as the score’s main theme. It supports all the predatory, plundering and dueling pirate activity in the film. Margaret’s Theme serves as both her identity and as a Love Theme for her and Jamie. It offers the only feminine construct of the score, a warm and sumptuous theme borne by strings romantico. The theme evolves over the course of the film from initial coolness to being abducted, to one of yearning after she warms to Jaime and falls in love with him. The Black Swan Theme supports Captain Leech as master of the Black Swan and the pirates he commands. It offers declarations by trumpets sinistre with a descending contour buttressed by massive ascending orchestral chords. In regards to the five secondary motifs, we have; Tome Blue’s Motif, which supports Waring’s first mate. It speaks to his mischievous nature with a playful clarinet figure. Henry Morgan’s Motif supports this pirate turned governor with a plodding construct, which speaks to his enormous girth The Caribbean Sea is offered a motif with a shimmering nautical construct, which supports its glistening waters. The Governor’s House Motif offers fanfares reale, which speak to the British seat of power in Port Royal Jamaica. Roger Ingram’s Motif speaks to this traitorous pirate collaborator with a sprightly flute figure, which speaks to his pretentiousness and vanity.

“Main Title” offers a rousing score highlight. We open with Newman’s renown 20th Century Fox fanfare, which supports the studio logo. The film opens with a rousing declaration of Jaime’s Theme, which supports the sight of the Black Swan sailing on the open seas. The music assumes an ominous expression with intensifying trumpet declarations of menace declaring the predatory Black Swan Theme as we see her fire a broadside of cannons, which rakes the opposing vessel, bringing down her main sail mast. At 0:42 we commence the roll of the opening credits, which unfold as red script set against billowy cloud filled skies. Newman supports with a rousing exposition of the Pirate Theme, the song “Heave Ho!” by men’s choir. Newman fully pulls the audience into the film with this thrilling opening. “Foreword” offers narrative script; “This is a story of the Spanish Main – when Villainy wore a sash and the only political creed in the world was – Love gold and adventure”, which Newman supports with Jaime’s fanfare by horns bravura.

In “12 O’clock and All is Well”, idyllic Caribbean strings flow over the nightfall breeze as a lover plays his guitar and serenades his woman on a balcony as the city of Guadela watchman declares 12 o’clock and all is well. We see Captain Billy Leech, Jaime their mates peering over the city wall. We flow seamlessly into “Over The Wall Into Battle” with ominous low register rumbling and horns of menace as the men rope down into the city. At 0:08 the alarm is sounded and the men engage the Spanish guards in a swordfight empowered by the Pirate Theme as a war anthem. Newman unleashes a torrent of violence as they open the city gate, the rest of the crew flood in, and overwhelm the Spaniards. They loot the town and at 1:00 a diminuendo takes us into “Small Haul But An Easy One” as we see the town engulfed in flames and the men assembling their loot kidnapped women on the beach for transport to the Black Swan. A musical narrative of woe unfolds as the men drink and revel in their stolen bounty. Interspersed within this narrative are portentous muted trumpet militare declarations, and an aggrieved Jaime’s Theme borne by trumpets and supported by a drum beat of death joins as he frets over the fate of his friend Captain Morgan who awaits hanging in London. Foreboding woodwinds enter at 2:29 as we see Spanish soldiers creeping up on the men. A crescendo of tension commences at 2:50 and explodes in a torrent of violence as the Spaniards open fire and attack. Spanish fanfare interplays with the Pirate’s Theme as a flight motif as most of the men escape in their boats, except the drunk Jaime, who is captured. At 3:21 we flow into “Captured”/Inquisition” as the magistrate Don Miguel interrogates Jaime on a rack. A grim musical narrative unfolds as Don Miguel enumerates Jaime’s many crimes and demands to know the whereabouts of Captain Morgan. He orders the rack turned following Jaime’s defiant repartee. At 4:54 canons resound as Jaime’s pirate mates come to his rescue empowered by the Pirate’s theme. A trumpet of futility sounds as Don Miquel and his men are overwhelmed and captured. We conclude with a spirited narrative empowered by interplay of the Pirate’s and Jaime’s Theme as he is released and the taunts Don Miguel before placing him on the rack to exact sweet revenge.

In “Locking Away Lord Denby” we open with horns of menace and a grim musical narrative as the Lord Denby, the governor of Jamaica enters and orders Don Miguel released, informing Jaime that England and Spain had signed a peace treaty. Jaime orders Denby imprisoned as a traitor for siding with the Spanish. At 0:25 a spirited Pirate’s Theme swells with confidence as he savors all the bounty he will steel from this castle. At 0:55 lush strings romantico of Lady Margaret Denby’s Theme support her arrival wielding a pistol. She demands her father’s release and the music softens as Jaime disarms her with his charm, joined at 1:18 by a proud declaration of his theme as he formally introduces himself. A comic, albeit playful narrative entwines with her theme’s strings romantico as they banter. He suddenly knocks the gun from her hand and then decides to kiss her using force, so as to ‘sample’ what he has secured. That her theme supports the struggle informs us that she, despite her resistance, is attracted to Jaime. Yet she bits him at 2:20 and he angrily slaps her unconscious. Strings spiritoso support as he carries her out and the men depart the castle with their loot. At 2:37 a swaggering musical narrative unfolds on Morgan’s Theme as Jaime reunites with his friend Captain Henry Morgan, who declares that he has been pardoned. He then orders Tom Blue to organize a meeting of the captains at the pub Porkers Sterne.

“Jamie Duels With Leech” reveals Leech railing against Morgan and calling him a traitor. Jaime takes exception and challenges Leech to a duel. Newman unleashes a kinetic maelstrom as the two men sword fight, with their two themes battling for supremacy. A diminuendo occurs at 0:25 as we segue into “Captain Morgan Intervenes”, which supports Captain Morgan’s arrival and order to stop the fight at gunpoint. Morgan announces that he is the new Governor of Jamaica and that he will award 100 acres of land to every man who abandons piracy. His pompous theme replete with faux horn reale fanfare supports his oratory. At 2:28 the music becomes ominous as Captains Leech and Wogan reject the offer. Morgan’s Theme reprises as he exhorts the men to change course, to no avail. At 2:49 a tense and foreboding musical narrative unfolds as most of the men walk out with Captains Leech and Wogan. We close with a confident interplay of the Pirate’s and Jaime’s Themes as he convinces Jaime to stay with him.

“Port Royal” opens with the trumpeting fanfare reale of the Governor’s House Motif as a carriage arrives at the British seat of power in Port Royal Jamaica. Morgan, Jaime and Tom enter the residence supported by Morgan’s pompous theme and the comedic Tom’s Theme as he jokes about not having to shoot their way in. Inside an extended exposition of Morgan’s Theme supports his awkward meeting with the outgoing governor Denby, who despises him personally, but will cooperate as an officer of the crown on an orderly transfer of power. A minuet joins at 1:30 to support Jaime’s playful ridicule of Denby. Morgan orders them to find a room of their choosing and at 1:44 a comic scherzando carries Tom and Jaime’s search of the mansion. Tension enters at 2:08 as an imperious Jaime orders the servant out of the bedroom when he discovers it belongs to Lady Margaret. Playful woodwinds support his exploration, and usher in the string borne Margaret’s Theme as he feels her presence and discovers a locket on the floor. Yet when he opens it at 2:51, the music sours as it contains a picture of Roger Ingran. He is angry and decides to keep the locket as we close with a coda of Jaime’s Theme.

“Sir Henry Morgan, Governor Of Jamaica” reveals Morgan’s official installation as governor, supported by muted trumpets reale and snare drums. As the ceremony unfolds, a displeased Margaret exits and is followed out to the terrace by Jaime. In “Ducking The Ceremony” Jaime tries his best to woo Margaret politely as a gentleman. Sweet strings d’amore of the Love Theme emote purely from his perspective, yet she will have none of it. At 1:11 the music sours as she slaps him for being fresh. He begins wooing her again supported by the Love Theme, but once again she rejects his overtures and the music sours. At 1:41 Roger arrives carried by fanciful woodwinds of his theme and accepts Margret’s request to rescue her. A playful and comedic musical narrative, which features Jaime’s Theme unfolds as he quickly dispatches Roger’s weak swordsmanship and then knocks him out with a punch.

“Lady Margaret’s Pillow” offers a score romantic highlight. It opens with a playful Tom’s Theme on woodwinds as he brings in a woman he intends to bed in Margaret’s bedroom. At 1:17 Jaime enters from the balcony carried by a plucky rendering of his theme and throws the two out and locks the door. After the servant brings him Margaret’s pillow, Jaime decides to sleep on it and her sensual theme joins at 1:31 as he beds down. He smells her scent on the pillow and the Love Theme unfolds on strings romantico as we see her in his thoughts. The romance for strings continues the next day as he meets her on the trail as they take a morning ride. She turns about and rides off in a huff only to have her horse toss her to the ground. He rescues her and carries her to a shaded spot to rest supported by a wonderful romance for strings. At 3:44 his playful theme supports his efforts to care for her as we begin to see her thawing regarding him. We flow sumptuously into the Love Theme at 5:00 as he obeys her demand for water to quench her thirst. His kindness and charisma breaks down her defenses and she asks to hear his life story, which Newman supports with an embellished molto romantico rendering of the Love Theme. Yet at 6:25 the music sours as she strikes his head with a rock, knocking him out. Suspenseful tremolo violins carry her hobbled departure, saved at 6:49 by the hapless woodwinds of Roger’s Theme as he arrives to rescue her. We close with a sheepish Jaime’s Theme, which supports his grogginess and chagrin as he wakes.

In “Ingram Conspires With Leech” Newman creates an ethereal twinkling misterioso with a serpentine oboe sinistro as we see Ingram taking a boat to meet Leech on the Black Swan. Ingram conspires with Leech for their mutual benefit by offering to provide intel on the movement of English ships so Leech and Wogan can intercept. His price – a captain’s share of the booty. Ingram’s Theme joins in sinister interplay as the men discuss the scheme, with Leech accepting the offer, the ship treasure ship Prince Consort being their first target. At 1:06 we shift to the sea atop a sinister rendering of the Black Swan fanfare as Leech’s two pirate ships move in to attack the Prince Consort. At 1:20 a torrent of orchestral violence is unleashed as canon broadsides are followed by hand-to-hand combat. A dire declaration of the Black Swan fanfare supports the sight of the Prince Consort’s name plank floating in the water with a dead man, as Leech sails away with the stolen booty.

In executive session Ingram accuses Morgan of complicity in this attack. Morgan deflects and orders Captain Jamie Waring to lead a squadron of three ships with Captains Graham and Higgs and hunt down and destroy the pirates Leech and Wogan. In “Ingram Warns Fenner And Leech” Ingram warns Fenner to alert Leech that Waring sails for Tortuga and to wait off St Thomas for the next British treasure ship. His theme carried by a serpentine oboe sinistro weaves a diabolical musical narrative. At 0:24 a shimmering ethereal effect supports the arrival of Margaret, who joins Roger in his carriage. Woven into this shimmering effect is a bassoon sinistro emoting Roger’s malignant theme. “Tortuga” reveals Jaime’s flotilla sailing for Tortuga to ambush Leech and Wogan. The sparkling Caribbean Sea Motif supports their passage with interplay from an undercurrent of tension by a cello ostinato and Jaime’s Theme. At 1:20 muted horns sound Jaime’s Theme as he readies his gun crews and prepares to attack. Yet the swelling tension dissipates into a misterioso as Jaime is informed that the harbor is empty.

In Port Royale the council impeaches Morgan, and Ingram agrees to go to London with his fiancée Margaret to obtain the King’s consent. Jaime will not give up Margaret and so with the aid of Tom sets off to kidnap her before she can marry Ingram. In “Jamie Kidnaps Lady Margaret” he enters her estate grounds with tension joined by a determined rendering of his theme as he reaches the manor door, yet it dissipates uncomfortably when she discovers him. At 0:31 the Love Theme enters as he makes a fervent effort to win her heart, which fails. At 2:05 he grabs her, bundles her in his cape, gags her, and kidnaps her supported by an energetic rendering of his theme. At 3:23 strings gentile supports the sight of Jaime and her seated for breakfast on his ship. Welcoming strings d’amore emoting from his perspective call to her, but she refuses to eat with him. At 4:03 Ingram’s sinister theme joins as Jaime informs her of a traitor in their midst who has recently come into a lot of money selling out British ships to Leech. We see doubt about Roger surface in her eyes, joined by the Love Theme as we see her wavering. At 4:36 a clarinet animato emotes Tom’s silly theme as he enters and asks Jaime to come to the bridge. Playful woodwinds join as Jaime departs and teases her about not eating. On deck at 4:57 the sinister Black Swan Theme resounds as Leech’s two ships are seen in the distance. Woodwinds sow trickery to support Jaime’s decision to hoist the Jolly Roger pirate flag in hope of joining Leech to parley as he is out gunned and cannot flee. This trickery interplays with the Black Swan Theme raising tension with a string ostinato with tambourine accents as Jaime moves to join the Black Swan. At 6:36 strings romantico supports Jaime’s discovery of Margaret topside. He explains his plan and she does not believe him, which leads him to push her back into the cabin below supported by his aggrieved theme. Leech comes aboard but is wary of Jaime’s allegiance and Newman weaves a musical narrative of suspicion with tense interplay of Jaime’s Theme. At 9:09 the Black Swan fanfare resounds with a transfer to woodwinds sinistre as Leech accepts Jaime rejoining, on condition that he and his ‘wife’ Lady Margaret travel on his ship to Maracaibo. We close with interplay of the Love Theme and a sprightly Jaime’s Theme as Jaime agrees to Leech’s condition and places Tom in command of the Revenge.

“Articles Of Agreement” reveals Jaime and Leech discussing articles of agreement to formalize their portions of booty seized in the future. A sinister Black Swan Theme supported by menacing drums supports Jaime signing the agreement. “Jamie’s “Bride” reveals Jaime going to the cabin to carry on the charade of his marriage to Margaret carried by his confident theme and a quote of the Black Swan Theme as Leech ponders Jaime’s veracity. As he enters Margaret is outraged that he is in her cabin while she is in bed, but he assuages her by promising not to touch her and to sleep in a hammock. Newman supports their bantering with and extended exposition of the string borne Love Theme. At 2:12 harp d’amore joins as she lays in bed pondering, her affection for Jaime growing. At 2:49 alarm severs the romance as Jaime hears footsteps, takes down the hammock and gets into bed with Margaret to ensure the illusion is maintained. Leech enters bearing a wedding gift and Newman sows tension with woodwinds sinsitre emoting the Black Swan Theme as we see that Leech is suspicious when he peeks under the sheets and finds Jaime in his trousers and the hammock crumbled up on the floor. We end darkly with Leech’s departure and Margaret ordering Jaime out of her bed, threatening to shoot him the next time. He gives her his pistol and promises not to approach her again.

“Maracaibo” reveals Captain Morgan sailing into Maracaibo supported by interplay of his theme and the Caribbean Motif. On the island, nativist drums and singing propel a woman’s sensual dance much to the men’s delight (not found on the album). Captain Henry arrives, outraged that Jaime kidnapped Margaret, which resulted in him, the governor being driven out of town. “Morning In The Honeymoon Cabin” reveals our two ‘lovers’ waking supported by sweet strings d’amore. At 1:07 horns of menace join with the trumpets of the Black Swan Theme as Leech enters the cabin, after he overhears Jaime’s plan for ambush, and finds him not in his wedding bed. He has him bound, informs him that he is taking Margaret and will sail into the harbor under an English flag to enable him to sink the ships of his comrades. Margaret’s aggrieved theme supports her being taken by force, joined by Jaime’s Theme as he struggles to free himself. A sinister Black Swan Theme supports Leech’s journey to the Revenge with Margaret as hostage. At 2:40 a vigorous Jaime’s Theme supports his determined struggle to free himself in the cabin. Interplay with the Black Swan Theme unfolds as we shift to and fro from Leech to Jaime. At 2:57 Morgan’s Theme joins as he sees the Revenge entering the harbor. Interplay with a sinister Black Swan Theme joins as Morgan is confused why the Revenge is coming into the harbor with full sails. A crescendo of tension slowly swells joined by the Black Swan Theme as Leech prepares to fire on the unsuspecting English ships.

At 4:05 we segue into “Attack On Maracaibo” a tour de force score highlight where Newman unleashes a maelstrom of orchestral violence as we see Leech’s cannons raking the defenseless English ships. At 4:41 we shift to Jaime’s struggle to free himself atop a beleaguered quote of his theme. The musical narrative shifts to and fro from the strings furioso and kinetic horn driven battle music and Jaime’s Theme as he frees himself and moves to sabotage the Black Swan. At 5:32 a crescendo dramatico fortified with Jaime’s Theme swells as he cuts the tiller rope rendering the rudder inoperative. Grave declarations of the Black Swan Theme cry out at 5:51, swelling on a crescendo of horror as she sails out of control and crashes into the rocky shore. At 6:19 a descent motif supports the collapse of her masts, which topple down crushing Wogan and his men to death. Leech continues undaunted on the Revenge raking the port fort with canon fire as Morgan orders a team to take him to the Revenge to kill the traitorous Jaime. The ferocious action music supports the battle, joined proudly at 7:25 by Jaime’s fanfare as he sneaks aboard the lower deck of the Revenge and moves to free his imprisoned crew. A diminuendo supports his stealth efforts and the music explodes with violence buttressed by the Pirate Theme and a heroic rendering of Jaime’s Theme as he succeeds and the men climb out and fight to retake the Revenge from Leech. At 8:49 Leech engages Jaime in a sword fight, which is propelled by strings furioso of the Pirate’s Theme with heroic quotes of Jaime’s Theme contested by the Black Swan Theme. At 9:25 Leech’s Theme resounds as he topples Jaime off the top deck only to have him run to rescue Margaret in the captain’s cabin. Leech runs after him and the duel is empowered by strings furioso of the Pirate Theme and an aggressive contest between Jaime’s and Leech’s themes. At 10:35 Jaime suffers an abdominal wound followed by a lethal thrust to Leech’s chest, who dies supported by tremolo violins of death. A wounded Jaime’s Theme follows as he pulls Leech’s sword out and falls in pain. Grieving violins of the Love Theme join as the bound Margaret struggles to free herself. At 11:01 we go topside atop Morgan’s Theme emoted as a war anthem as he storms the deck and turns the tide of battle. At 11:23 a diminuendo ushers in a weakened rendering of Jaime’s Theme as Tom comes and tends to his wounds. The music darkens as Morgan enters the cabin empowered by his theme. He declares Jaime will be hung, and apologizes to Margaret for her kidnapping. However after freeing her, she declares that she went with Jaime of her own free will. A thankful Jaime’s Theme joins as she tears her dress to bandage his wounds. We close the scene with a jaunty Morgan’s Theme as he declares he will be taking this “madwoman” (Margaret) back to Jamaica.

At 12:54 we segue into “Finale” atop the Caribbean Sea Motif, which supports the Revenge sailing back to Port Royale. At 13:23 a jaunty Pirate Theme supports his musings with Tom that he misses the sea and does not look forward to returning to his lace stuff job as Governor. We close at 14:01 atop the sumptuous string borne Love Theme as Margaret joins Jaime on deck, accommodates his demand that she say Jaime-boy three times as an affirmation of her love, and then passionately initiates a kissing embrace. We end happily on a coda of Jaime’s Theme as “The End” displays to close the film.

I would like to thank Ray Faiola, the late Nick Redman, and Craig Spaulding for restoring Alfred Newman’s long sought, swashbuckling adventure score, “The Black Swan”. The technical team worked diligently with preservation copies of the original nitric optical scoring sessions. The restored recording offers improved archival, monaural sound, which does not achieve 21st century audio qualitative standards. While I am pleased that the score is now available commercially, I really believe that a new re-recording is needed to fully appreciate Newman’s handiwork. Newman was tasked with a film, which offered an exciting tale that included a nautical adventure, pirate swashbuckling action, and romance. To that end he created four primary themes to drive his musical narrative. The tandem of Jaime’s Theme and the Black Swan (Leech’s Theme) support our hero’s struggle against the villain with a number of scenes offering inspired, kinetic interplay. The Pirate’s Theme, the score’s Main Theme, is pervasive, and energetically propels the story’s narrative. While the sumptuous Love Theme, one of Newman’s finest, offers a welcome juxtaposition that gives the film heart, and the requisite romance needed to offset the other forceful, and aggressive masculine identities. In scene after scene Newman’s music is impactful and masterfully enhances the film’s story-telling. Folks, this is a classic Alfred Newman score, which has it all; fun, adventure, kinetic duels, battles on land and at sea, and a beautiful romance. I recommend both the album and watching the film to fully appreciate Newman’s handiwork.

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to the Main Title: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KvJUr09O-E8

Buy the Black Swan soundtrack from the Movie Music UK Store

Track Listing:

  • Main Title (1:37)
  • Foreword (0:24)
  • Over the Wall Into Battle/Small Haul But An Easy One/Captured/Inquisition (8:08)
  • Locking Away Lord Denby (3:22)
  • Jamie Duels With Leech/Captain Morgan Intervenes (3:43)
  • Port Royal (3:10)
  • Sir Henry Morgan, Governor of Jamaica (0:10)
  • Ducking the Ceremony (2:52)
  • Lady Margaret’s Pillow (7:16)
  • Ingram Conspires With Leech (1:47)
  • Ingram Warns Fenner and Leech (0:43)
  • Tortuga (2:20)
  • Jamie Kidnaps Lady Margaret (10:53)
  • Articles of Agreement (0:28)
  • Jamie’s Bride (6:03)
  • Maracaibo (0:13)
  • Morning in the Honeymoon Cabin/Attack on Maracaibo/Finale (15:08)

Running Time: 68 minutes 17 seconds

Screen Archives Entertainment SAE-CRS-010 (1942/2003)

Music composed and conducted by Alfred Newman. Orchestrations by Edward B. Powell, Herbert W. Spencer, George Spencer, George Parrish, Conrad Salinger and Maurice dePackh. Additional music by David Buttolph and Hugo Friedhofer. Score produced by Alfred Newman. Album produced by Ray Faiola, Nick Redman and Craig Spaulding.

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