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THE THREE MUSKETEERS – Max Steiner

February 21, 2022 Leave a comment Go to comments

GREATEST SCORES OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

Original Review by Craig Lysy

RKO Studios like its competitors of the day was seeking to remake classic films of the Silent Age. In 1934 they secured the film rights for “The Three Musketeers”, which previously had starred Douglas Fairbanks Jr in 1921. Cliff Reid was assigned production with a $512,000 budget. The film would again draw upon the famous novel 1844 The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas, with Rowland V. Lee and Dudley Nichols writing the screenplay. Lee was also tasked with directing and brought in a fine cast, which included Walter Abel as D’Artagnan, Ian Keith as Count de Rochefort, Margot Grahame as Milady de Winter, Paul Lucas as Athos, Moroni Olsen as Porthos, and Onslow Stevens as Aramis.

The film is set in France circa 1625 C.E. during the reign of King Louis XIII and explores palace intrigue where love, greed and power intersect. A young Gascon d’Artagnan has come to age and aspires to become a Musketeer. He travels from his home in Gascony to Paris to seek out his godfather Captain de Tréville, Lord Commander of the King’s Musketeers. Along the way his life course is forever changed after a fateful encounter battling against the soldiers of Cardinal Richelieu brings him under the wings of the preeminent Musketeers of the day; Porthos, Aramis and Athos. Together the four men forge an unbreakable bond, joining in common cause to save France by exposing the conspiracy of Count de Rochefort and the English Duke of Buckingham to assassinate the King and Cardinal Richelieu. The King rewards d’Artagnan by bestowing on him the title of Musketeer. The film was a commercial success, earning a profit of $412,000. Comparisons with the 1921 film were inevitable, with consensus being that the remake underperformed. The film did not earn any Academy Award nominations.

Max Steiner’s was 47 years old in 1935. Creatively, and physically, he was completely exhausted from the toll of writing 160 scores (26/year), often into the early morning hours, during his six-year tenure as RKO Pictures Director of Music. He announced with no uncertain terms to studio head William LeBaron that he was resigning from his post to take a much-needed six-month vacation. “The Musketeers” would serve as his finale at RKO Studios. Upon watching the final edited version of the film, Steiner quickly realized that this complex swashbuckling film offered extensive episodes of sword fighting, court intrigue, insidious duplicity and betrayal, romance, and the quest of a young man pursuing his aspirations.

For his soundscape, Steiner imparts a classical baroque sensibility infused with some of the most dynamic and exciting action music of his career. There are ten primary themes, and a motif, including; the rousing call to arms “Song of the Musketeers”, which was composed by Steiner, who also wrote the lyrics. The instrumental version is the score’s main theme, which is pervasive during the film, animating the adventure, and serves as the identity of the Musketeers. It speaks to the themes of brotherhood and fraternal love between men. The Family Theme is the emblem of House d’Artagnan, and emotes with nobility and formality as a marcia maestoso, yet it also abounds with familial warmth. The Adventure Theme speaks to Gascon’s adventurous spirit as he pursues his destiny to become a Musketeer. It offers a confident, buoyant, and happy-go-lucky ambiance, which carries Gascon with optimism.

There are two loves themes. Constance Theme supports her personal identity, but also a love theme for her and Gascon. The lush yearning string borne theme is full of a longing romanticism, joined by celeste and harp with the first two notes soaring in an octave leap. The Duke and Anne’s Love Theme offers a sumptuous romance for strings d’Amore, which Steiner has often mastered. For our three villains we have Count de Rochefort’s Theme, which emotes with haughty court pomp and formality. It is minor modal, has an occult menace and advances with a very structured cadence. The Cardinal’s Theme emotes simply by a solemn organ religioso. There is no overt menace to his theme as he carefully conceals his treachery behind the pious veneer of his red robes. Lady de Winter’s is a former criminal, branded on her shoulder with the fleur-de-lis, and hiding her past from the nobility and royal court. Her theme offers alluring, feminine sensibilities by sumptuous strings romantico, which bely her sinister designs. Planchet’s Theme supports Gascon’s lackey and emotes clumsily with a sardonic bassoon. Later in the film after he acquaints himself well in battle, his theme evolves to emote with a modicum of respect and dignity. Charlemagne’s Theme supports Gascon’s old horse nag with a lumbering low register string melody. Lastly, the Pigeon Courier Motif offers fluttering woodwinds, which simulate the cooing sound made by the birds.

“Main Title” offers a score highlight where Steiner masterfully captures the film’s emotional core. We open boldly with heraldic fanfare as the roll of the opening credits commences. Martial drums join with metallic sword clashing accents and usher in the rousing “The Song of the Musketeers”, sung by male chorus. It emotes a marcia bravura propelled by drums militare, piccolo animato and trumpets. In “Leaving Home” young Gascon d’Artagnan has come to age and aspires to become a Musketeer. We open with a prelude of flowery strings, which usher in at 0:08 the nobility, and formality of the Family Theme, which emotes as a marcia maestoso as his father, prepares to sponsor his son’s quest to follow in his shoes. The theme becomes tender with paternal love as the former Musketeer gifts Gascon some money, his trusted sword, his horse Charlemagne, and a letter of reference. Some comedy joins as Charlemagne is a broken-down nag, but Gascon takes it all in stride, and at 1:43 the pride of the Family Theme carries his departure. At 2:29 we segue into “Adventure on the Road” another score highlight, atop the Adventure Theme which offers a confident, buoyant, and happy-go-lucky ambiance. At 2:47 the theme intensifies and gains heroic vital energy as Gascon sees a coach being attacked by a highwayman and rides, as fast as old Charlemagne can take him. Yet it is for naught as the highway man turns out to be Count de Rochefort, who mocks him.

“Count de Rochefort’s Plan” reveals that the haughty noble is dismissive of Gascon as he orders Lady de Winter’s carriage to turn about. Rochefort’s sinister theme is introduced at 0:30 and provided an extended rendering, which like him, dominates the scene. At 1:36 sumptuous strings introduce de Winter’s Theme, overtaken at 2:02 by a now overtly menacing Rochefort’s Theme, which returns, and is challenged by Gascon’s Adventure Theme as the two men banter. Rochefort’s dominates with Gascon bludgeoned from behind at 2:52 by one of the his men and knocked down. Horns triste conclude as the Rochefort rides off to Paris as the waylaid Gascon lays unconscious. In “Paris” Gascon enters the capital atop an exuberant Adventure Theme until 0:23 when a series of four harp glissandi support poor old Charlamagne collapsing from exhaustion. Yet he rebounds with Gascon’s coaching and we conclude with the horse’s lumbering theme as he struggles back up on his hooves. “A Soldier’s Horse” reveal Gascon accepting an offer to pasture poor Charlemagne. A warm Main Theme opens the scene joined by Charlemagne’s Theme. We close with a confident and determined Adventure Theme as Gascon departs on foot to seek out Captain de Tréville of the Musketeers.

“Fencing Drill” offers an amazing cinematic confluence! Gascon arrives and is inspired as he witnesses a mass training exercise of the entire Musketeer corp. As they thrust and parry with balletic choreographic grace, Steiner supports using a precision danza energico with a kinetic drum cadence and clarion trumpet as the music soars with octave leaps. Above on a balcony, the king castigates de Tréville because Musketeers Athos, Porthos and Aramis again broke his orders and dueled with the Cardinal’s guards. In “The Three Musketeers” trumpeting fanfare heralds de Tréville’s summons of Athos, Porthos and Aramis. A vibrant quote of the Musketeer theme supports their arrival. At 0:30 stern strings grave voice de Tréville’s scolding. Yet the three deny the allegations supported by sheepish quotes of their theme until 1:33 when they are dismissed and exit supported by a majestic statement of the Musketeer Theme. At 2:36 we segue into “D’Artagnan’s Introduction” a warm score highlight where Gascon’s godfather de Tréville receives the elder d’Artagnan’s referral letter. Steiner supports with a warm rendering of the D’Artagnan Theme as he happily reminisces, including a tender statement on celeste at 2:55 as he recalls Gascon’s christening. Musketeer fanfare joins as de Tréville warmly accepts Gascon into the Musketeers. Yet he stipulates that he must enter as a cadet, and apprentice under one of his men. Gascon shows the impatience of youth, but acquiesces, and we conclude with as a noble rendering of the Musketeer Theme.

“Three Challenges” offers an exciting score highlight. We open with quotes of the Adventure fanfare as Gascon and de Tréville continue their discussion. At 0:22 Gascon sees de Rochefort and a stepped crescendo commences until 0:36 when he rushes out to avenge himself carried by racing strings irato. There is a series of momentum breaks, that support Gascon barreling into Athos and then Porthos. The flight continues until 1:25 when fanfare ushers in flowery, idyllic romanticism as Aramis’ love letter comes to light. A sardonic trombone at 1:53 ushers in a saccharine sweet faux romanticism, which support a fellow musketeer reading aloud his love letter, which elicits his anger and embarrassment. The aggrieved three Musketeers issue Gascon challenges to avenge his slight. Steiner supports this at 2:16 with three successive grave rendering of the Musketeer Theme, one for each Musketeer, with interplay of Gascon’s Adventure Theme. “Duel with the Musketeers” reveals that Athos, Porthos and Aramis find Gascon’s challenge to each of them, truly audacious and Aramis steps up first to teach the lad a lesson. Steiner supports with a lighthearted, almost playful musical narrative with a quote of the Musketeer Theme as Gascon acquaints himself well against Aramis. At 0:31 dire music severs the musical narrative as the cardinal’s guards arrive, spoiling for a fight. Gascon offers his swordsmanship to the Musketeers, who gladly accept.

“Routing the Cardinal’s Guards” the album presentation is significantly shorter than the film scene as much of the original source track was lost. It supports the grand duel in which the Musketeers and Gascon route the cardinal’s guards who flee. Steiner supports with a rousing action set piece, which concludes at 0:19 with four victors walking away caried by a pompous rendering of the Musketeer Theme. In “D’Artagnan’s New Apartment” the three Musketeers secure Gascon lodging, which is supported by a lighthearted Musketeer Theme. At 0:26 we segue into “Planchet” where they assign him a servant lackey named Planchet, who is supported comically by his clumsy theme emoted by a sardonic bassoon. The scene ends with the Musketeers toasting, supported by their theme. A change of scene at 1:56 reveals carrier pigeons arriving with a message from de Rochefort, which Steiner’s supports with the fluttering woodwinds of the Pigeon Motif. “A Message for Richelieu” reveals that the Duke of Buckingham in disguise will soon arrive to continue his affair with the Queen. Cardinal Richelieu and de Rochefort conspire to counter this threat to the throne. This dark, conspiratorial cue is dominated by an ominous rendering of de Rochefort’s Theme with interplay of the Cardinal’s Theme on organ religioso as the two formulate a plan.

In “Getting Ready for Bed” a proud rendering of the Adventure Theme supports as Gascon happily gazes in the mirror after he dons his treasured Musketeer uniform. Afterwards the two turn in to sleep – Gascon in a bed, and Planchet supported by his hapless theme, on a floor cot under the bed. “Constance’s Deception” reveals her return to the inn as she is a ward of the owner Bernajou, who secretly lusts for her. Steiner supports with a solo violin delicato, celeste and harp, which emote a nascent Constance’s Theme against a foreboding background of suspense. She goes upstairs to her room and signals Aramis on the street below. At 1:06 woodwinds quote his theme when she sees Gascon ‘sleeping’, which elicits her stealth departure. The Musketeer fanfare joins when Gascon looks out the window to see Aramis below. We end with a misterioso and a comic Planchet quote as Gascon tries to fathom was has transpired. The next two cues offer beautiful romantic score highlights. “D’Artagnan Discovers Buckingham” reveals Gascon bursting into a room with Constance hoping to find Aramis, only to instead discover Queen Anne and the Duke of Buckingham. We open with suspenseful revelatory music as the Queen’s illicit rendezvous is revealed. Trumpets sound and ominous drums roll to support the discomfort. At 0:43 Gascon and Constance depart and we segue into “The Queen and Buckingham” where our two lovers meet and Steiner graces us with a beautiful rendering of the Duke and Anne’s Love Theme, a sumptuous romance for strings d’amore. At we shift back to Gascon and Constance Love Theme, so full of longing, which blossoms.

“The Queen’s Pledge of Peace” reveals Anne and the Duke negotiating to prevent war. She gifts him diamonds, a recent present from the king to keep the peace as the lurking Bernajou watches from an armoire. Aching, plaintive quotes of their Love Theme support the conversation, yet their love is affirmed as the theme blossoms for a beautiful exposition as he accepts her offering. The theme ends tenderly on celeste to support their departure from the room. At 2:14 Bernajou ominously emerges from the armoire and an agitato is unleashes as he frets over how to respond. “Safe Passage” reveals Gascon escorting arm in arm, Constance and the Queen back to the palace. Music enters dramatically as they reach the safety of the palace with both Constance’s and Anne’s Theme gracing us as they enter the palace. At 0:45 a spritely tune full of confidence with quotes of the Adventure Theme carries Gascon back to his apartment. The music softens as he contemplates the end of an amazing first day in Paris. At 1:29 Gascon and Constance’s Love Theme, so full of yearning, joins as we see both are thinking of each other. At 1:55 we segue darkly into “Bernajou’s Treachery” where we see Bernajou released from prison and running to de Rochefort to become his informant. An emphatic de Rochefort’s Theme carried by strings sinistri support Bernajou and the count. The theme, buttressed by menacing horns supports de Rochefort informing the cardinal of Anne’s transfer of diamonds to Buckingham.

“D’Artagnan’s Assignment” reveals that the Queen’s gifting of the diamonds to Buckingham has reached the King, who invites her to the Anniversary Ball next week wearing his diamond gift. Gascon convinces de Tréville do dispatch him to England to retrieve the diamonds, and he orders Athos, Porthos and Aramis as support. Constance provides them a letter to Buckingham from the queen and the four set off. We open with Anne’s dignified theme that ushers in an extended passage, which features suspense, interplay of Constance’s Theme and Musketeer’s Theme. At 2:36 a change of scene full of menace reveals Bernajou squealing to de Rochefort, who dispatches guards to bar the city gates and stop the Musketeers. His malevolent theme supports his treachery.

“On to Calais!” offers an exceptional score action highlight with exciting thematic interplay. We open with horns dramatico sounding the alarm as the four see guards rushing to the gates to block their exit. Horns dramatico reprise as Porthos forces the gate open allowing the other three to escape, but trapping himself. At 0:37 a heroic Musketeers Theme propels Gascon, Athos and Aramis on the ride to destiny! At 0:51 an organ religioso emotes the Cardinal’s Theme as de Rochefort informs him of the escape of the Musketeers. At 1:10 a distressed Anne and Buckingham Love Theme joins as she waits frantically for news in her room. At 1:22 the fluttering woodwind Pigeon Motif reprises to support de Rochefort dispatching more carrier pigeons. At 1:27 we return boldly to the Musketeer Theme as they riding furiously and unstoppable to the coast. Soon Aramis breaks off to hold off the pursuit so Gascon and Athos can escape. We conclude magnificently with a crescendo eroico of ascending Musketeer Fanfare declarations!

“London” muted English fanfare reale opens the scene in London and ushers in harp glissandi and the fluttering woodwind motif as Lady de Winter receives a carrier pigeon communique from de Rochefort, whose harp emoted theme joins as she is instructed to retrieve the diamonds from Buckingham, and then return to him in Paris. At 0:58 de Winter’s Theme joins on strings tristi as she prepares to seduce Lord Buckingham. At 2:15 we segue dramatically into “Arrival at the Inn” with a quote of the Musketeer Theme where we see Gascon and Athos arriving to refresh themselves and their horses before pushing on to Calais. Athos begins a conversation about his past, joined at 2:31 by a menacing de Rochefort Theme as his assassins arrive for an ambush. As Athos speaks a dignified statement of the Musketeer Theme supports joined by strings romantico and woodwinds gentile. At 3:40 the assassins strike and all hell breaks loose with a determined Musketeers Theme empowering Athos who covers Gascon’s escape on horseback. We close heroically on the theme as Athos fights of the assassins.

“Carrier Pigeons” opens darkly as de Rochefort receives a pigeon carrier communique, which informs him that only one of the four Musketeers made it to Calais. The fluttering woodwinds of the Pigeon Carrier Motif joins in unholy communion with his sinister theme. At 0:20 we segue into “Calais” atop a jaunty nautical motif, which joins with a proud declaration of the Musketeer fanfare as we see Gascon preparing to arrange passage across the English Channel to England. A playful piccolo emotes a hornpipe as he defers when he notices Lady de Winter disembarking from London, as he is intent on procuring her passport. At 0:49 we flow into her viola borne theme as he follows her to an inn. A transfer to solo violin tenero enriches the musical narrative. At 1:48 spritely woodwinds dance in support of Gascon feigning a fight against an intruder at de Winter’s door, which wins her trust at 1:59 with a suspense ascent as she allows him to join her. Her string borne theme welcomes him, joined at 2:27 by the hapless Charlemagne’s Theme, which reprises as she recalls Gascon’s nag. Gascon needs her passports to reach England, and so begins to romance her to gain them supported by a more endearing and carefree rendering of the Musketeer’s Theme. “Lady de Winter’s Secret” opens with a suspenseful quote of the Musketeer’s Theme when she reveals the diamonds that she is taking back to Paris. Gascon’s facial recognition response confirms to her his intentions. What follows is their two themes joining in a delicious tête-à-tête as each try to entice the other into revealing their intentions. Gascon decides to forego London and instead offers to accompany her and the diamonds to Paris. The musical narrative darkens and swells with grim violence as this plays right into her hands when her guards at 2:10 subdue and bind him in her carriage empowered by de Rochefort’s malevolent theme.

The next two cues offer a tour de force with some of the most astounding action writing and exciting thematic interplay in Steiner’s career. “Coach to Paris” reveals the coach en route to Paris with de Winter taking his letter to Buckingham, revealing full knowledge of Gascon’s identity, mission, and love for Constance. Steiner empowers her desperate escape and chase with a sustained galloping rhythm, with each theme joining and articulated at that base galloping rhythm, which provides continuity to the musical narrative. De Rochefort’s Theme offers the primary foil to the Musketeer Theme as he is the architect of the plan, but de Winter’s, and Gascon and Constance’s Love Theme also join the fray. At 4:01 a diminuendo ushers in a segue into “Pursuit” when De Winter stops at an inn to send de Rochefort a message. A slow mounting tension along with de Rochefort’s Theme support her efforts until she is spotted at 5:27 by Athos. At 6:18 the music erupts as she flees, manages to elude him, and her coach speeds away with the three Musketeers in hot pursuit. The Musketeer’s Theme soars and empowers their pursuit. Steiner unleashes an orchestral furioso as they take a shortcut, overtake the carriage, and dispatch her guards. A 7:45 a triumphant rendering of their theme resounds to celebrate their victory as Porthos takes the reins of the carriage and Athos frees Gascon as he reveals to him her identity as his former wife who murdered his beloved brother. De Rochefort’s Theme gains vital force as they near Paris, and a crescendo dramatico swells and ushers in Gascon and Constance’s Love Theme as he will soon rejoin her.

“Reunion with Constance” reveals Gascon’s arrival at the rendezvous point carried by the galloping rhythm and Musketeer Theme, which transform to a romantic iteration as he runs to her and they reunite. In “Suicide” de Winter realizes her arrest and execution is inevitable and so slips out of the carriage, and jumps off the bridge. A shock chord opens the cue and supports her death impacting the river water. Everyone is stunned and Steiner supports the aftermath with a diminuendo of sadness. At 0:31 we segue into “The Anniversary Ball” atop the galloping rhythm as the carriage proceeds to the palace. Constance has donned Lady de Winter’s cape to impersonate her so as to allow the carriage to gain entry to Paris. The galloping rhythm and Musketeer Theme provide the foundation of the cue with Steiner weaving a complex tapestry by infusing a multiplicity of themes as the film shifts back and forth from the racing carriage and the palace. At 0:40 dire fanfare resounds as courtiers await the arrival of the King and Queen. We flow into a distressed Queen Anne’s Theme as worries if the diamonds will arrive in time to save her. At 1:01 a malignant de Rochefort’s Theme joins as he informs the cardinal that the Queen will not be wearing her diamonds tonight. We return at 1:12 atop a buoyant Musketeer’s Theme as the carriage rolls to the city gates. A tense diminuendo supports Constance fooling the guards, who allow the carriage entry to Paris. They race to the palace and finally arrive as the Cardinal’s Theme entwines with de Rochefort’s Theme in unholy communion as they wait with pleasure, their upcoming victory. We conclude with their arrival at the palace atop a proud statement of the Musketeer Theme.

“Duel with de Rochefort” reveals courtiers opening curtains and announcing the arrival of the queen, but instead it reveals Gascon and de Rochefort in a sword fight. Steiner scores the duel as a danza energico with the Musketeer Theme becoming ascendent as Gascon gains the upper hand and defeats de Rochefort. “Treachery Revealed” opens grimly atop de Rochefort’s Theme as the queen enters wearing the royal diamond necklace. She then hands the King a letter, obtained from the Musketeers, which discloses de Rochefort’s plan to murder the king and cardinal. De Rochefort’s Theme crashes in ignominy as he is arrested and escorted out. At 0:27 we segue into “Finale”, a wondrous score highlight. We open with a warm and satisfying Musketeer Theme with a series of drum rolls as Gascon, with Constance at his side, is bestowed an award that he has long sought from the king – promotion to the status of a Musketeer. We conclude the film in very satisfying fashion with an exaltation of the Musketeer Theme as Gascon, Constance and the Musketeers celebrate his well-earned honor.

I would like to thank James V. d’Arc, and Ray Faiola for restoring this long sought swashbuckling Steiner masterwork, “The Three Musketeers”. The 70-year-old acetate source provided significant challenges to the team restoring the score. While appreciated, the audio quality reveals at times significant imperfections, that will put-off audio purists. While I am happy to finally have a CD of the score, I have to believe that what is ultimately required to fully appreciate Steiner’s magnificent music, is a re-recording of the score by a modern orchestra using 21st century technology. My assessment of the score is that Steiner fully captured the film’s emotional core with his rousing and heroic Musketeer Theme, as well as embracing the sensibilities of the film’s setting. An amazing multiplicity of fine themes were composed, including two love themes, three villain themes, as well as the comic Planchet and Charlemagne themes. Steiner must have had a blast composing this rollicking score, and I found it one of his most enjoyable efforts. His music animated and empowered the film’s story, fleshed out its characters, propelled its narrative pacing, and offered plenty of excitement and fun. I consider this an early Golden Age classic, and one of Steiner’s most entertaining scores. I recommend you purchase the CD for your collection, with the caveat that you should be prepared for some imperfections with the audio quality. Let up hope that a film score label takes the initiative to fully restore this masterpiece with a new 21st century recording. Until that day!

For those of you unfamiliar with the score, I have embedded a YouTube link to a magnificent nineteen-minute suite; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmiRqo6k_xY

Buy the Three Musketeers soundtrack from the Movie Music UK Store

Track Listing:

  • Main Title (1:28)
  • Leaving Home/Adventure on the Road (3:41)
  • Count de Rochefort’s Plan (3:11)
  • Paris (0:56)
  • A Soldier’s Horse (0:59)
  • Fencing Drill (2:09)
  • The Three Musketeers/D’Artagnan’s Introduction (4:31)
  • Three Challenges (4:09)
  • Duel with the Musketeers (0:41)
  • Routing the Cardinal’s Guards (0:31)
  • D’Artagnan’s New Apartment/Planchet (2:03)
  • A Message for Richelieu (2:10)
  • Getting Ready for Bed (0:53)
  • Constance’s Deception (1:56)
  • D’Artagnan Discovers Buckingham/The Queen and Buckingham (2:27)
  • The Queen’s Pledge of Peace (2:37)
  • Safe Passage/Bernajou’s Treachery (4:03)
  • D’Artagnan’s Assignment (3:18)
  • On to Calais! (2:43)
  • London/Arrival at the Inn (4:20)
  • Carrier Pigeons/Calais (3:38)
  • Lady de Winter’s Secret (2:39)
  • Coach to Paris/Pursuit (9:18)
  • Reunion with Constance (0:35)
  • Suicide/The Anniversary Ball (2:40)
  • Duel with de Rochefort (0:35)
  • Treachery Revealed/Finale (2:04)

Running Time: 70 minutes 15 seconds

Brigham Young University Film Music Archives Production FMA-MS117 (1935/2007)

Music composed and conducted by Max Steiner. Orchestrations by Bernhaud Kaun. Recorded and mixed by XXXX. Score produced by Max Steiner. Album produced by James d’Arc and Ray Faiola.

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